# Intelligent Machine

An Intelligent Machine is an intelligent system that is an artificial system (that can solve AI tasks).

## References

### 2012

• (Wikipedia, 2012) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence
• QUOTE: Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents"[1] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success.[2] John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956,[3] defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."[4]
• (Wikipedia, 2012) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligent_agent
• In artificial intelligence, an intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators (i.e. it is an agent) and directs its activity towards achieving goals (i.e. it is rational). Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals. They may be very simple or very complex: a reflex machine such as a thermostat is an intelligent agent, as is a human being, as is a community of human beings working together towards a goal.

Intelligent agents are often described schematically as an abstract functional system similar to a computer program. For this reason, intelligent agents are sometimes called abstract intelligent agents (AIA)[citation needed] to distinguish them from their real world implementations as computer systems, biological systems, or organizations. Some definitions of intelligent agents emphasize their autonomy, and so prefer the term autonomous intelligent agents. Still others (notably (Russell & Norvig, 2003) considered goal-directed behavior as the essence of intelligence and so prefer a term borrowed from economics, "rational agent".

Intelligent agents in artificial intelligence are closely related to agents in economics, and versions of the intelligent agent paradigm are studied in cognitive science, ethics, the philosophy of practical reason, as well as in many interdisciplinary socio-cognitive modeling and computer social simulations.

Intelligent agents are also closely related to software agents (an autonomous software program that carries out tasks on behalf of users). In computer science, the term intelligent agent may be used to refer to a software agent that has some intelligence, regardless if it is not a rational agent by Russell and Norvig's definition. For example, autonomous programs used for operator assistance or data mining (sometimes referred to as bots) are also called "intelligent agents".

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### 2009

• http://www.computer.org/portal/site/intelligent/
• IEEE Intelligent Systems, a bimonthly publication of the IEEE Computer Society, provides peer-reviewed, cutting-edge articles on the theory and applications of systems that perceive, reason, learn, and act intelligently. The editorial staff collaborates with authors to produce technically accurate, timely, useful, and readable articles as part of a consistent and consistently valuable editorial product. The magazine serves software engineers, systems designers, information managers, knowledge engineers, researchers, and professionals in such fields as finance, manufacturing, medicine, defense, and the sciences.
• http://www.intelligent-systems.com.ar/intsyst/defintsi.htm
• It is a system.
• It learns during its existence. (In other words, it senses its environment and learns, for each situation, which action permits it to reach its objectives.)
• It continually acts, mentally and externally, and by acting reaches its objectives more often than pure chance indicates (normally much oftener).
• It consumes energy and uses it for its internal processes, and in order to act.

### 2000

• Alexander M. Meystel, and James Sacra Albus. (2000). "Intelligent Systems: Architecture, Design, and Control, 1st edition. John Wiley & Sons.
• QUOTE:While intelligence is a difficult concept to comprehend, research into its mechanisms and functions is rapidly exploding in both biological and artificial systems. This book introduces an original model of intelligent systems, integrating knowledge from diverse sources and developing a general theory that can be used for the analysis of all kinds of highly complex systems, from whole economies to integrated manufacturing.

Intelligence as a computational phenomenon dwells upon grouping, focusing attention, and combinatorial search as its fundamental operators. In this groundbreaking work, Alex Meystel and James Albus, two of the foremost authorities in the field, draw on two decades of testing the theory in robots and other smart machines. (Dr. Meystel developed an autonomous Dune-Buggy in 1983 — 1987; Dr. Albus’s work forms the basis for the control system used in the Army Demo III Experimental Unmanned Ground Vehicle program, 1997 — present.) Special coverage of the NIST-RCS (Real-time Control System) model is also featured in this liberally illustrated and clearly written book.

Focusing on intelligence as a computational phenomenon with a multiresolutional architecture, Intelligent Systems: Architecture, Design, and Control promises to dramatically influence future research and development in intelligence worldwide. It is a one-of-a-kind resource for scientists, engineers, and anyone wishing to explore the contemporary theory and tools of computational intelligence.

### 1956

• AI Conference at Dartmouth College