Designed Study

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An designed study is a planned analysis task that gathers empirical evidence and performs a study evaluation task in order to accept or reject an empirical hypothesis.



References

2014?

  • Jeff Bezos.
    • “If you already know it's going to work, it's not an experiment, and only through experimentation can you get real invention. The most important inventions come from trial and error with lots of failure, and the failure is critical, and it's also embarrassing.”
    • "If you double the number of experiments you do per year, you're going to double your inventiveness."

2013

2013

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empirical_research
    • Empirical research is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience. Empirical evidence (the record of one's direct observations or experiences) can be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively. Through quantifying the evidence or making sense of it in qualitative form, a researcher can answer empirical questions, which should be clearly defined and answerable with the evidence collected (usually called data). Research design varies by field and by the question being investigated. Many researchers combine qualitative and quantitative forms of analysis to better answer questions which cannot be studied in laboratory settings, particularly in the social sciences and in education.

      In some fields, quantitative research may begin with a research question (e.g., "Does listening to vocal music during the learning of a word list have an effect on later memory for these words?") which is tested through experimentation in a lab. Usually, a researcher has a certain theory regarding the topic under investigation. Based on this theory some statements, or hypotheses, will be proposed (e.g., "Listening to vocal music has a negative effect on learning a word list."). From these hypotheses predictions about specific events are derived (e.g., "People who study a word list while listening to vocal music will remember fewer words on a later memory test than people who study a word list in silence."). These predictions can then be tested with a suitable experiment. Depending on the outcomes of the experiment, the theory on which the hypotheses and predictions were based will be supported or not.[1]

2012

  • (Wikipedia, 2012) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiment
    • An experiment is a methodical trial and error procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Experiments vary greatly in their goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. A child may carry out basic experiments to understand the nature of gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance the understanding of a phenomenon.

      An experiment is a method of testing - with the goal of explaining - the nature of reality. Experiments can vary from personal and informal (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favourite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists hoping to discover information about subatomic particles).

      In the design of comparative experiments, two or more "treatments" are applied to estimate the difference between the mean responses for the treatments. For example, an experiment on baking bread could estimate the difference in the responses associated with quantitative variables, such as the ratio of water to flour, and with qualitative variables, such as strains of yeast. Experimentation is the step in the scientific method that helps people decide between two or more competing explanations – or hypotheses. These hypotheses suggest reasons to explain a phenomenon, or predict the results of an action. An example might be the hypothesis that "if I release this ball, it will fall to the floor": this suggestion can then be tested by carrying out the experiment of letting go of the ball, and observing the results. Formally, a hypothesis is compared against its opposite or null hypothesis ("if I release this ball, it will not fall to the floor"). The null hypothesis is that there is no explanation or predictive power of the phenomenon through the reasoning that is being investigated. Once hypotheses are defined, an experiment can be carried out - and the results analysed - in order to confirm, refute, or define the accuracy of the hypotheses.

2009

  • (WordNet, 2009) ⇒ http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=experiment
    • S: (n) experiment, experimentation (the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation)
    • S: (n) experiment, experimentation (the testing of an idea) "it was an experiment in living"; "not all experimentation is done in laboratories"
    • S: (n) experiment (a venture at something new or different) "as an experiment he decided to grow a beard"
    • S: (v) experiment (to conduct a test or investigation) "We are experimenting with the new drug in order to fight this disease"
    • S: (v) experiment, try out (try something new, as in order to gain experience) "Students experiment sexually"; "The composer experimented with a new style"

1998

1990

  • (Brown & Melamed, 1990) ⇒ Steven R. Brown, and Lawrence E. Melamed. (1990). “Experimental Design and Analysis." SAGE Publications, Inc . ISBN:9780803938540
    • QUOTE:experimentation can be viewed as an extension of inquisitiveness, and consequently is as old as curiosity itself. There is evidence that it was beginning to take root as an organized procedure as early as the thirteenth century when the received wisdom of the Greeks was being questioned. In a more formal sense, however, the experimental method received its greatest impetus from the scientific advances of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and it was because of its success that Sir Isaac Newton could confidently state that "the qualities of bodies are only known to us by experiments." By the twentieth century, "classical" experimentation - the practice of holding everything constant except the one variable under consideration-was widely accepted in the sciences, but "modern" experimentation dates from the publication in 1935 of Sir Ronald A. Fisher's "The Design of Experiments."

1960

  • (Fisher, 1960) ⇒ R. A. Fisher. (1960).
    • QUOTE: " … [experimentation is] experience carefully planned in advance … " (p. 8),

1935


  1. Goodwin, C. J. (2005). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.