Difference between revisions of "Gender"

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#REDIRECT [[Gender Measure]]
A [[Gender]] is a [[Masculinity]] that ...
* <B>See:</B> [[Transsexualism]], [[Masculinity]], [[Femininity]], [[Sex]], [[Intersex]], [[Social Structure]], [[Gender Role]], [[Gender Identity]], [[World Health Organization]], [[Gender Binary]], [[Boys]], [[Men]].
== References ==
=== 2020 ===
* (Wikipedia, 2020) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gender Retrieved:2020-1-15.
** '''Gender''' is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, [[masculinity]] and [[femininity]]. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological [[sex]] (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an [[intersex]] variation), sex-based [[social structure]]s (i.e., [[gender role]]s), or [[gender identity]].<ref name="udry"></ref> <ref name="haig"></ref> <ref name="www.who.int"></ref> Most cultures use a [[gender binary]], having two genders ([[boys]]/[[men]] and [[girls]]/[[women]]);<ref name="Nadal-re-binary">Kevin L. Nadal, ''The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender'' (2017, ), page 401: "Most cultures currently construct their societies based on the understanding of gender binary—the two gender categorizations (male and female). Such societies divide their population based on biological sex assigned to individuals at birth to begin the process of gender socialization." </ref> those who exist outside these groups fall under the umbrella term [[Non-binary gender|''non-binary'' or ''genderqueer'']]. Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the [[Hijra (South Asia)|hijras]] of [[South Asia]]; these are often referred to as ''[[third gender]]s'' (and ''fourth genders'', etc). <P> [[Sexology|Sexologist]] [[John Money]] introduced the terminological distinction between [[Sex and gender distinction|biological sex and gender as a role]] in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word ''gender'' to refer to anything but [[grammatical gender|grammatical categories]].<ref name=udry /><ref name="haig" /> However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when [[feminist theory]] embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the [[Social construction of gender difference|social construct of gender]]. Today, the distinction is followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences<ref name="socialsciencedictionary"></ref> <ref name="pearsonhighered"></ref> and documents written by the [[World Health Organization]] (WHO).<ref name="www.who.int" /> <P> In other contexts, including some areas of the social sciences, ''gender'' includes ''sex'' or replaces it.<ref name="udry" /><ref name="haig" /> For instance, in non-human animal research, ''gender'' is commonly used to refer to the biological sex of the animals.<ref name="haig" /> This [[Semantic change|change in the meaning]] of gender can be traced to the 1980s. In 1993, the US [[Food and Drug Administration]] (FDA) started to use ''gender'' instead of ''sex''.  Later, in 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using ''sex ''as the biological classification and ''gender'' as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation."  The [[social science]]s have a branch devoted to [[gender studies]]. Other sciences, such as [[sexology]] and [[neuroscience]], are also interested in the subject. The social sciences sometimes approach gender as a [[Social constructionism|social construct]], and gender studies particularly do, while research in the [[natural science]]s investigates whether [[sex differences in humans|biological differences]] in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity. In some English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on [[transsexualism]] in 1978.<ref name="haig" />

Latest revision as of 19:27, 15 January 2020

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