Learning Act

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A Learning Act is a system act of a learning task (where a learning system improves its performance based on a learning experience)



References

2015

  • (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/learning Retrieved:2015-6-28.
    • Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curve. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by previous knowledge. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process, rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Learning produces changes in the organism and the changes produced are relatively permanent.[1]

      Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling, or training. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of educational psychology, neuropsychology, learning theory, and pedagogy.

      Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals. [2] [3] Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. Learning that an aversive event can't be avoided nor escaped is called learned helplessness. [4] There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.

      Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact through play. Lev Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through playing educational games.

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Schacter
  2. Jungle Gyms: The Evolution of Animal Play
  3. What behavior can we expect of octopuses?
  4. [1]

2002

  • (Russell & Norvig, 2002) ⇒ Stuart J. Russell, and Peter Norvig. (2002). “Artificial Intelligence: a modern approach (2nd edition).” Prentice-Hall ISBN:0137903952
    • QUOTE: … We explain the role of learning as extending the reach of the designer into unknown environments, and we show how that role constrains agent design, favoring explicit knowledge representation and reasoning.