Extrinsic Motivation

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A Extrinsic Motivation is an agent motivation that comes from extrinsic benefits (form an external source).



References

2014

  • (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation#Intrinsic_and_extrinsic_motivation Retrieved:2014-11-26.
    • … Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain a desired outcome and it is the opposite of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior. Competition is in an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives.[1]
    • … Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition.[2] However, another study showed that third graders who were rewarded with a book showed more reading behavior in the future, implying that some rewards do not undermine intrinsic motivation.[3] While the provision of extrinsic rewards might reduce the desirability of an activity, the use of extrinsic constraints, such as the threat of punishment, against performing an activity has actually been found to increase one's intrinsic interest in that activity. In one study, when children were given mild threats against playing with an attractive toy, it was found that the threat actually served to increase the child's interest in the toy, which was previously undesirable to the child in the absence of threat.[4]
  1. Dewani, Vijay. "Motivation". slideshare. http://www.slideshare.net/vijaydewani7/motivation-15959567. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  2. Mark R. Lepper, David Greene and Richard Nisbet, "Undermining Children’s Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward; A Test of ‘Overjustification’ Hypothesis," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28, 1973, 129‐37.
  3. Barbara A. Marinak and Linda B. Gambrell, "Intrinsic Motivation and Rewards: What Sustains Young Children’s Engagement with Text?," Literacy Research and Instruction 47, 2008, 9-26.
  4. Wilson, T. D., & Lassiter, G. D. (1982). Increasing intrinsic interest with superfluous extrinsic constraints. Journal of personality and social psychology, 42(5), 811-819.

2003

  • (Lakhani & Wolf, 2003) ⇒ Karim R. Lakhani, and Robert G. Wolf. (2003). “Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free / open Source Software Projects.” MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4425-03,
    • ABSTRACT: ... Academic theorizing on individual motivations for participating in F/OSS projects has posited that external motivational factors in the form of extrinsic benefits (e.g.: better jobs, career advancement) are the main drivers of effort. We find in contrast, that enjoyment-based intrinsic motivation, namely how creative a person feels when working on the project, is the strongest and most pervasive driver. We also find that user need, intellectual stimulation derived from writing code, and improving programming skills are top motivators for project participation. …

2000

1998