Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networking System

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A Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networking System is a Distributed Networking System that in which individual nodes in the network (called "peers") act as both suppliers and consumers of resources.



  • (Wikipedia, 2021) ⇒ Retrieved:2021-10-1.
    • Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.

      Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. [1] Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client–server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided.[2] While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains,[3] the architecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster, originally released in 1999. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as a meme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughout society, enabled by Internet technologies in general.

  1. Rüdiger Schollmeier, A Definition of Peer-to-Peer Networking for the Classification of Peer-to-Peer Architectures and Applications, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, IEEE (2002).
  2. Bandara, H. M. N. D; A. P. Jayasumana (2012). “Collaborative Applications over Peer-to-Peer Systems – Challenges and Solutions". Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications. 6 (3): 257–276. arXiv:1207.0790. Bibcode:2012arXiv1207.0790D. doi:10.1007/s12083-012-0157-3. S2CID 1400854
  3. Barkai, David (2001). Peer-to-peer computing : technologies for sharing and collaborating on the net. Hillsboro, OR: Intel Press. ISBN 978-0970284679. OCLC 49354877


  1. D. McLaughlin et al., "Short-wavelength technology and the potential for distributed networks of small radar system". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., vol. 90,Dec. 2009, pp. 1797–1817.
  2. M. Conti, S. Giordano, M. May, and A. Passarella, "From opportunistic networks to opportunistic computing". IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 48, no. 9, 2010, pp. 126–139. doi: 10.1109/MCOM.2010.5560597


  1. Sonja Buchegger, and Anwitaman Datta. "A case for P2P infrastructure for social networks - opportunities and challenges". In: WONS 2009, 6th International Conference on Wireless On-demand Network Systems and Services, Snowbird, Utah, USA, February 2009.


Unlike the pure Peer-to-Peer model, hybrid Peer-to-Peer models, such as Napster, incorporate some traces of the Client-Server relationship. Hybrid in the case of Peer-to-Peer means, that there is a central server in the system, but it takes only an intermediary role in the system. Central servers within the network fulfill two primary functions. First, they act as central directories where either connected users or indexed content can be mapped to the current IP address. Second, the servers direct traffic among the peers. Normally the initial communication of a peer is done with a server (1), e.g., to obtain the location identity of a peer, followed by (2) direct communication with that peer, see Figure 3.


  • (Schollmeier, 2011) ⇒ R. Schollmeier (2001, August). “A definition of peer-to-peer networking for the classification of peer-to-peer architectures and applications". In: Proceedings First International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing. IEEE. DOI:10.1109/P2P.2001.990434.