Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
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- (Wikipedia, 2016) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud Retrieved:2016-10-17.
- Sigmund Freud ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud ; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.  Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.  Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.  His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego.  Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt.  In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture. Psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.  Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freud's death, he had become "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives." 
- Eric R. Kandel The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind and Brain, from Vienna 1900 to the Present. New York: Random House 2012, pp. 45–46.
- Gay 2006, pp. 136–37
- Jones, Ernest (1949) What is Psychoanalysis ? London: Allen & Unwin. p. 47.
- Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, p. 49-51, 152-54
- Mannoni, Octave, Freud: The Theory of the Unconscious, London: NLB 1971, pp. 146–47
- For its efficacy and the influence of psychoanalysis on psychiatry and psychotherapy, see The Challenge to Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, Chapter 9, Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry: A Changing Relationship by Robert Michels, 1999 and Tom Burns Our Necessary Shadow: The Nature and Meaning of Psychiatry London: Allen Lane 2013 p. 96-97. * For the influence on psychology, see The Psychologist, December 2000 * For the influence of psychoanalysis in the humanities, see J. Forrester The Seductions of Psychoanalysis Cambridge University Press 1990, pp. 2–3. * For the debate on efficacy, see Fisher, S. and Greenberg, R. P., Freud Scientifically Reappraised: Testing the Theories and Therapy, New York: John Wiley, 1996, pp. 193–217.
- For the debate on the scientific status of psychoanalysis see Stevens, R. 1985 Freud and Psychoanalysis Milton Keynes: Open University Press, pp. 91–116.
- For the debate on psychoanalysis and feminism, see Appignanesi, Lisa & Forrester, John. Freud's Women. London: Penguin Books, 1992, pp. 455–474
- Auden 1940 * Also see Alexander, Sam "In Memory of Sigmund Freud" (undated) and Thurschwell, P. Sigmund Freud London: Routledge 2009, p. 1