# Particle Physics Standard Model

A Particle Physics Standard Model is a Particle Physics Model concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of the known subatomic particles.

**See:**Maxwell's Model, Particle Physics, Electromagnetism, Weak Interaction, Strong Interaction, Particle, Quark.

## References

### 2014

- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Model Retrieved:2014-1-6.
- The
**Standard Model**of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of the known subatomic particles. It was developed throughout the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative effort of scientists around the world. The current formulation was finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, discoveries of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and more recently the Higgs boson (2013), have given further credence to the Standard Model. Because of its success in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the Standard Model is sometimes regarded as a "theory of almost everything". Mathematically, the standard model is a quantized Yang–Mills theory. The Standard Model falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions because it makes certain simplifying assumptions. It does not incorporate the full theory of gravitation^{[1]}as described by general relativity, or predict the accelerating expansion of the universe (as possibly described by dark energy). The theory does not contain any viable dark matter particle that possesses all of the required properties deduced from observational cosmology. It also does not correctly account for neutrino oscillations (and their non-zero masses). Although the Standard Model is believed to be theoretically self-consistent^{[2]}and has demonstrated huge and continued successes in providing experimental predictions, it does leave some unexplained phenomena.The development of the Standard Model was driven by theoretical and experimental particle physicists alike. For theorists, the Standard Model is a paradigm of a quantum field theory, which exhibits a wide range of physics including spontaneous symmetry breaking, anomalies, non-perturbative behavior, etc. It is used as a basis for building more exotic models that incorporate hypothetical particles, extra dimensions, and elaborate symmetries (such as supersymmetry) in an attempt to explain experimental results at variance with the Standard Model, such as the existence of dark matter and neutrino oscillations.

- The

- ↑ Sean Carroll, Ph.D., Cal Tech, 2007, The Teaching Company,
*Dark Matter, Dark Energy: The Dark Side of the Universe*, Guidebook Part 2 page 59, Accessed Oct. 7, 2013, "...Standard Model of Particle Physics: The modern theory of elementary particles and their interactions … It does not, strictly speaking, include gravity, although it's often convenient to include gravitons among the known particles of nature..." - ↑ In fact, there are mathematical issues regarding quantum field theories still under debate (see e.g. Landau pole), but the predictions extracted from the Standard Model by current methods are all self-consistent. For a further discussion see e.g. Chapter 25 of