Human Organism

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A Human Organism is an great ape with a human genome (with 23 chromosome pairs).



References

2021

  • (Wikipedia, 2021) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human Retrieved:2021-5-10.
    • Humans (Homo sapiens) are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality and large complex brains enabling the development of advanced tools, culture and language. Humans are highly social beings and tend to live in large complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established a wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which bolster human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, philosophy, mythology, religion, and other fields of knowledge.

      Humans evolved from other hominins in Africa several million years ago. Although some scientists equate humans with all members of the genus Homo, in common usage it generally refers to Homo sapiens, the only extant member. H. sapiens emerged around 300,000 years ago, evolving from Homo erectus and migrating out of Africa, gradually replacing local populations of archaic humans. Early humans were hunter-gatherers, before settling in the Fertile Crescent and other parts of the Old World. Access to food surpluses led to the formation of permanent human settlements and the domestication of animals. As populations became larger and denser, forms of governance developed within and between communities and a number of civilizations rose and fell. Humans have continued to expand, with 7.8 billion humans occupying almost all regions of the world in 2020.

      Genes and the environment influence human biological variation in visible characteristics, physiology, disease susceptibility, mental abilities, body size and life span. Though humans vary in many traits (such as genetic predispositions and physical features), two humans on average are over 99% similar, with the most genetically diverse populations are from Africa. The greatest degree of genetic variation exists between males and females. On average, men have greater body strength and women generally have a higher body fat percentage. Females undergo menopause and become infertile decades before the end of their lives. They also have a longer life span in almost every population around the world. The division into male and female gender roles has varied historically, and challenges to predominant gender norms have recurred in many societies.

      Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material, and have used fire to prepare and cook food since the time of H. erectus. They can survive for up to eight weeks without food, and three or four days without water. Humans are generally diurnal, sleeping on average seven to nine hours per day. Childbirth is dangerous, with a high risk of complications and death. Both the mother and the father provide care for human offspring who are helpless at birth.

      Humans have a large and highly developed prefrontal cortex, the region of the brain associated with higher cognition. They are intelligent beings, capable of episodic memory, flexibility facial expressions, self-awareness and a theory of mind. The human mind is capable of introspection, private thought, imagination, volition and forming views on existence. This has allowed great technological advancements and complex tool development possible through reason and transmission of knowledge onto future generations. Language, art and trade are defining characteristics of humans. Long-distance trade routes might have led to cultural explosions and resource distribution that gave humans an advantage over other similar species.

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1983

1500s

  • (Shakespeare, 1599) ⇒ William Shakespeare. (1599). “As You Like It."
    • All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players; they have their exists and their entrances, one man man in his time plays many parts, his acts being seven ages. At first, the infant, …