# Gini Economic Inequality Index

(Redirected from income inequality)

A Gini Economic Inequality Index is an economic inequality index based on the Gini diversity index/Lorenz Curve.

**Context:****output:**a Gini Economic Inequality Score, which can range from being [math]0.0[/math] (perfectly equal) to [math]1.0[/math] (perfectly unequal).- It can range from being a Gini Wealth Inequality Index to being a Gini Income Inequality Index.
- It can range from being a Before-Tax Gini Inequality Index to being an After-Tax Gini Inequality Index.
- It can be referenced by a Gini Inequality Timeseries.
- …

**Example(s):****Counter-Example(s):****See:**Poverty, Wealth Distribution.

## References

### 2016

- http://www.progressive-economics.ca/2016/01/20/redistribution-inequality-and-federal-policy-guest-post-by-edgardo-sepulveda/
- Figure 1 presents "market" and "after tax" income Gini coefficients for Canada and the OECD. Market income is before taxes and government cash transfers, while after tax income is after taxes and transfers. The Gini coefficient varies from 0 to 1.00, with higher values representing higher inequality. For comparative purposes, I include the "OECD-14" (representing the 14 OECD Member-Countries for which Gini coefficients are available from the mid-1980s) average, as well as the traditional inequality/taxation revenue "book-ends": the USA and the four larger Nordic countries ("Nordics-4": Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden).

- Figure 1 presents "market" and "after tax" income Gini coefficients for Canada and the OECD. Market income is before taxes and government cash transfers, while after tax income is after taxes and transfers. The Gini coefficient varies from 0 to 1.00, with higher values representing higher inequality. For comparative purposes, I include the "OECD-14" (representing the 14 OECD Member-Countries for which Gini coefficients are available from the mid-1980s) average, as well as the traditional inequality/taxation revenue "book-ends": the USA and the four larger Nordic countries ("Nordics-4": Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden).

### 2016

### 2013

- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gini_coefficient
- … Gini coefficient is commonly used as a measure of inequality of income or wealth.
^{[1]}For OECD countries, in the late 2000s, considering the effect of taxes and transfer payments, the income Gini coefficient ranged between 0.24 to 0.49, with Slovenia the lowest and Chile the highest.^{[2]}The countries in Africa had the highest pre-tax Gini coefficients in 2008-2009, with South Africa the world's highest at 0.7.^{[3]}^{[4]}The global income inequality Gini coefficient in 2005, for all human beings taken together, has been estimated to be between 0.61 and 0.68 by various sources.^{[5]}^{[6]}There are some issues in interpreting a Gini coefficient. The same value may result from many different distribution curves. The demographic structure should be taken into account. Countries with an aging population, or with a baby boom, experience an increasing pre-tax Gini coefficient even if real income distribution for working adults remain constant. Scholars have devised over a dozen variants of the Gini coefficient.

^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}

- … Gini coefficient is commonly used as a measure of inequality of income or wealth.

- ↑ Gini, C. (1936). “On the Measure of Concentration with Special Reference to Income and Statistics", Colorado College Publication, General Series No. 208, 73-79.
- ↑ "Income distribution - Inequality: Income distribution - Inequality - Country tables". OECD. 2012. http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?QueryId=26068.
- ↑ "South Africa Overview". The World Bank. 2011. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/southafrica/overview.
- ↑ Ali, Mwabu and Gesami (March 2002). "Poverty reduction in Africa: Challenges and policy options" (PDF). African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi. http://www.africa4all-project.eu/workshop/documents/SP36.pdf.
- ↑ Evan Hillebrand (June 2009). "Poverty, Growth, and Inequality over the Next 50 Years" (PDF). FAO, United Nations - Economic and Social Development Department. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/ak968e/ak968e00.pdf.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Shlomo Yitzhaki (1998). "More than a Dozen Alternative Ways of Spelling Gini".
*Economic Inequality***8**: 13–30. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDECINEQ/Resources/morethan2002.pdf. - ↑ Myung Jae Sung (August 2010).
*Population Aging, Mobility of Quarterly Incomes, and Annual Income Inequality: Theoretical Discussion and Empirical Findings*. https://editorialexpress.com/cgi-bin/conference/download.cgi?db_name=IIPF66&paper_id=222. - ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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