Difference between revisions of "Animal Well-Being Measure"

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==References==
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== References ==
  
 
=== 2019 ===
 
=== 2019 ===
* (Wikipedia, 2019) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/animal_welfare Retrieved:2019-9-9.
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* (Wikipedia, 2019) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/animal_welfare Retrieved:2019-9-9.
 
** '''Animal welfare''' is the well-being of nonhuman [[animal]]s. The standards of "good" animal welfare vary considerably between different contexts. These standards are under constant review and are debated, created and revised by animal welfare groups, legislators and academics worldwide.  <ref name="Hewson"></ref> [[Animal welfare science]] uses various measures, such as [[longevity]], [[disease]], [[immunosuppression]], [[Ethology|behavior]], [[physiology]], and [[reproduction]],  although there is debate about which of these indicators provide the best information. Respect for animal welfare is often based on the belief that nonhuman animals are [[Sentience|sentient]] and that consideration should be given to their [[well-being]] or [[suffering]], especially when they are under the care of humans.  These concerns can include how animals are [[Animal slaughter|slaughtered]] for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species. There are two forms of criticism of the concept of animal welfare, coming from diametrically opposite positions. One view, held by some thinkers in history, holds that humans have no duties of any kind to animals. The other view is based on the [[animal rights]] position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans is unacceptable. Accordingly, some animal rights proponents argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased exploitation of animals.  <ref name="Regan 1983"></ref> Some authorities therefore treat animal welfare and animal rights as two opposing positions.<ref name=Francione></ref> <ref name="Francione 1995"></ref>  Others see animal welfare gains as incremental steps towards animal rights. The predominant view of modern neuroscientists, notwithstanding [[defining consciousness|philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness]] even in humans, is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals.  However, some still maintain that consciousness is a philosophical question that may never be scientifically resolved.  
 
** '''Animal welfare''' is the well-being of nonhuman [[animal]]s. The standards of "good" animal welfare vary considerably between different contexts. These standards are under constant review and are debated, created and revised by animal welfare groups, legislators and academics worldwide.  <ref name="Hewson"></ref> [[Animal welfare science]] uses various measures, such as [[longevity]], [[disease]], [[immunosuppression]], [[Ethology|behavior]], [[physiology]], and [[reproduction]],  although there is debate about which of these indicators provide the best information. Respect for animal welfare is often based on the belief that nonhuman animals are [[Sentience|sentient]] and that consideration should be given to their [[well-being]] or [[suffering]], especially when they are under the care of humans.  These concerns can include how animals are [[Animal slaughter|slaughtered]] for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species. There are two forms of criticism of the concept of animal welfare, coming from diametrically opposite positions. One view, held by some thinkers in history, holds that humans have no duties of any kind to animals. The other view is based on the [[animal rights]] position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans is unacceptable. Accordingly, some animal rights proponents argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased exploitation of animals.  <ref name="Regan 1983"></ref> Some authorities therefore treat animal welfare and animal rights as two opposing positions.<ref name=Francione></ref> <ref name="Francione 1995"></ref>  Others see animal welfare gains as incremental steps towards animal rights. The predominant view of modern neuroscientists, notwithstanding [[defining consciousness|philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness]] even in humans, is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals.  However, some still maintain that consciousness is a philosophical question that may never be scientifically resolved.  
 
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Latest revision as of 11:54, 9 September 2019

An Animal Well-Being Measure is an well-being measure for non-human animals.



References

2019

  • (Wikipedia, 2019) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/animal_welfare Retrieved:2019-9-9.
    • Animal welfare is the well-being of nonhuman animals. The standards of "good" animal welfare vary considerably between different contexts. These standards are under constant review and are debated, created and revised by animal welfare groups, legislators and academics worldwide. [1] Animal welfare science uses various measures, such as longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behavior, physiology, and reproduction, although there is debate about which of these indicators provide the best information. Respect for animal welfare is often based on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their well-being or suffering, especially when they are under the care of humans. These concerns can include how animals are slaughtered for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species. There are two forms of criticism of the concept of animal welfare, coming from diametrically opposite positions. One view, held by some thinkers in history, holds that humans have no duties of any kind to animals. The other view is based on the animal rights position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans is unacceptable. Accordingly, some animal rights proponents argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased exploitation of animals. [2] Some authorities therefore treat animal welfare and animal rights as two opposing positions.[3] [4] Others see animal welfare gains as incremental steps towards animal rights. The predominant view of modern neuroscientists, notwithstanding philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness even in humans, is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals. However, some still maintain that consciousness is a philosophical question that may never be scientifically resolved.
  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hewson
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Regan 1983
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Francione
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Francione 1995