Difference between revisions of "State of Political Freedom"

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== References ==
 
== References ==
  
 
=== 2016 ===
 
=== 2016 ===
* (Wikipedia, 2016) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/political_freedom Retrieved:2016-10-20.
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* (Wikipedia, 2016) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/political_freedom Retrieved:2016-10-20.
 
** '''Political freedom''' (also known as a political autonomy or political agency) is a central [[concept]] in history and political thought and one of the most important features of [[democracy|democratic]] societies.<ref name=":0">Hannah Arendt, "What is Freedom?", ''Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought'', (New York: Penguin, 1993). </ref> It was described as freedom from oppression <ref> Iris Marion Young, "Five Faces of Oppression", ''Justice and the Politics of Difference" (Princeton University press, 1990), 39-65. </ref> or coercion, <ref> Michael Sandel, ''Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?'' (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010). </ref> the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions, <ref> Amartya Sen, ''Development as Freedom'' (Anchor Books, 2000). </ref> or the absence of life conditions of compulsion, e.g. economic compulsion, in a society. <ref> [[Karl Marx]], "Alienated Labour" in ''Early Writings''. </ref> Although political freedom is often interpreted [[negative liberty|negatively]] as the freedom from unreasonable external constraints on action, <ref> [[Isaiah Berlin]], ''Liberty'' (Oxford 2004). </ref> it can also refer to the [[positive liberty|positive]] exercise of rights, [[Capability approach|capacities]] and possibilities for action, and the exercise of social or group rights. <ref> [[Charles Taylor (philosopher)|Charles Taylor]], "What's Wrong With Negative Liberty?", ''Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers'' (Cambridge, 1985), 211-29. </ref> The concept can also include freedom from "internal" constraints on political action or speech (e.g. social [[conformity]], consistency, or "inauthentic" behaviour). <ref> Ralph Waldo Emerson, "[http://www.emersoncentral.com/selfreliance.htm Self-Reliance]"; Nikolas Kompridis, "Struggling Over the Meaning of Recognition: A Matter of Identity, Justice or Freedom?" in ''European Journal of Political Theory'' July 2007 vol. 6 no. 3 277-289. </ref> The concept of political freedom is closely connected with the concepts of [[civil liberties]] and [[human rights]], which in democratic societies are usually afforded legal protection from the [[State (polity)|state]].
 
** '''Political freedom''' (also known as a political autonomy or political agency) is a central [[concept]] in history and political thought and one of the most important features of [[democracy|democratic]] societies.<ref name=":0">Hannah Arendt, "What is Freedom?", ''Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought'', (New York: Penguin, 1993). </ref> It was described as freedom from oppression <ref> Iris Marion Young, "Five Faces of Oppression", ''Justice and the Politics of Difference" (Princeton University press, 1990), 39-65. </ref> or coercion, <ref> Michael Sandel, ''Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?'' (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010). </ref> the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions, <ref> Amartya Sen, ''Development as Freedom'' (Anchor Books, 2000). </ref> or the absence of life conditions of compulsion, e.g. economic compulsion, in a society. <ref> [[Karl Marx]], "Alienated Labour" in ''Early Writings''. </ref> Although political freedom is often interpreted [[negative liberty|negatively]] as the freedom from unreasonable external constraints on action, <ref> [[Isaiah Berlin]], ''Liberty'' (Oxford 2004). </ref> it can also refer to the [[positive liberty|positive]] exercise of rights, [[Capability approach|capacities]] and possibilities for action, and the exercise of social or group rights. <ref> [[Charles Taylor (philosopher)|Charles Taylor]], "What's Wrong With Negative Liberty?", ''Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers'' (Cambridge, 1985), 211-29. </ref> The concept can also include freedom from "internal" constraints on political action or speech (e.g. social [[conformity]], consistency, or "inauthentic" behaviour). <ref> Ralph Waldo Emerson, "[http://www.emersoncentral.com/selfreliance.htm Self-Reliance]"; Nikolas Kompridis, "Struggling Over the Meaning of Recognition: A Matter of Identity, Justice or Freedom?" in ''European Journal of Political Theory'' July 2007 vol. 6 no. 3 277-289. </ref> The concept of political freedom is closely connected with the concepts of [[civil liberties]] and [[human rights]], which in democratic societies are usually afforded legal protection from the [[State (polity)|state]].
 
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Latest revision as of 11:53, 9 September 2019

A State of Political Freedom is a political state where



References

2016

  • (Wikipedia, 2016) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/political_freedom Retrieved:2016-10-20.
    • Political freedom (also known as a political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.[1] It was described as freedom from oppression [2] or coercion, [3] the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions, [4] or the absence of life conditions of compulsion, e.g. economic compulsion, in a society. [5] Although political freedom is often interpreted negatively as the freedom from unreasonable external constraints on action, [6] it can also refer to the positive exercise of rights, capacities and possibilities for action, and the exercise of social or group rights. [7] The concept can also include freedom from "internal" constraints on political action or speech (e.g. social conformity, consistency, or "inauthentic" behaviour). [8] The concept of political freedom is closely connected with the concepts of civil liberties and human rights, which in democratic societies are usually afforded legal protection from the state.
  1. Hannah Arendt, "What is Freedom?", Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought, (New York: Penguin, 1993).
  2. Iris Marion Young, "Five Faces of Oppression", Justice and the Politics of Difference" (Princeton University press, 1990), 39-65.
  3. Michael Sandel, Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010).
  4. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (Anchor Books, 2000).
  5. Karl Marx, "Alienated Labour" in Early Writings.
  6. Isaiah Berlin, Liberty (Oxford 2004).
  7. Charles Taylor, "What's Wrong With Negative Liberty?", Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers (Cambridge, 1985), 211-29.
  8. Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Self-Reliance"; Nikolas Kompridis, "Struggling Over the Meaning of Recognition: A Matter of Identity, Justice or Freedom?" in European Journal of Political Theory July 2007 vol. 6 no. 3 277-289.

2016

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  • Isaiah Berlin. "Liberty"

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  • Hannah Arendt, "'What is Freedom?', Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought".