Published Document

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A published document is a document that is a published item.



  • (WordNet, 2009) ⇒
    • S: (n) publication (a copy of a printed work offered for distribution)
    • S: (n) issue, publication (the act of issuing printed materials)
    • S: (n) publication (the communication of something to the public; making information generally known)
    • S: (n) publication, publishing (the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution)
  • (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒
    • To publish is to make content publicly known. The term is most frequently applied to the distribution of text or images on paper, or to the placing of content on a website.
    • The word publication means the act of publishing, and it also means any writing of which copies are published, and any website. Among publications are books, and periodicals, the latter including magazines, scholarly journals, and newspapers.


    • A publication is a document or a work that have been published, that is: made public. The institution that publish documents is called "a publisher" or "a press". (The publisher may be the author of the document or the institute in which he is working). The difference between a published and a unpublished document is that the publication is issued in multiple copies and made available for sale (or distribution or requisition) for the public or a representative part of the public. Manuscripts available in public archives are thus not considered publications because they do not exist in multiple copies. Lecture notes distributed to students are not publications even they are made in many copies because they are not distributed to a representative part of the public.
    • There is no sharp limit between publications and unpublished papers. There are, for example, semi-publications or "gray literature" such as reports. In practice is it an important criterion for publication whether or not a document is registered in a national bibliography, which increases its visibility for libraries and booksellers.
    • An author may work continuously with the development of his ideas and write many drafts and manuscripts. When his work is published, it implies a relative degree of ending, closing, definitiveness and fixation. Of course may publications be revised in new editions. However, a publication cannot be retracted in an absolute sense, and scholars often compare different editions in order to illuminate the development of a theory or an author's thoughts. That a manuscript is published implies thus an important change in the status of a document in scholarly and scientific communication.
    • When choosing the way to publish their works, authors may be interested in making the choice optimal (see, for example, Oster, 1980). A work may be published more or less locally or internationally. It may be published in journals with a small or a high impact factor. High impact journals are better covered by indexing and abstracting services and thus have a higher visibility.


  • (Gilheany, 1998) ⇒ Steve Gilheany. (1998). “Preserving Information Forever and a Call for Emulators.” In: Proceedings of Digital Libraries Conference and Exhibition: The Digital Era: Implications, Challenges and Issues.
    • One could say that a published document is a presentation of information in a form that can be integrated into the sum of recorded information. Publishing could be said to be the extra effort that is taken to create a document from stored information.
    • Historically, the effort of publication has been imposed by the limitation of previous technologies. When the technologies were swept away by computing, many thought that all the effort in publishing could be dispensed with. Unfortunately this eliminates the production of published documents and leaves just raw information. Publishing a document indicates some level of checking, some level of group agreement and approval, some promise that it is likely that the document can be correctly interpreted, and that a good citizen effort has been made to limit the number of targets to which multiple reference might be made. Raw information caries none of these traits.
    • In publication, reference targets or versions should be limited in number to balance the demand for a readers time and understanding between the one published item at hand and the universe of items the published item has been linked to. In the case of versions, more is definitely not better.


  • (Oster, 1980) ⇒ S. Oster. (1980). “The Optimal Order for Submitting Manuscripts.” In: American Economic Review, 70(3).