Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was a person.
- See: Physicist, Mathematician, Engineer, Astronomer, Scientific Revolution, Telescope, Observational Astronomy.
- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei Retrieved:2014-10-18.
- Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics",  the "father of science",  and "the father of modern science". His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, a time when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, which concluded that heliocentrism was false and contrary to scripture, placing works advocating the Copernican system on the index of banned books and forbidding Galileo from advocating heliocentrism.  Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII, thus alienating not only the Pope but also the Jesuits, both of whom had supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Holy Office, then found "vehemently suspect of heresy", was forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.   It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences, in which he summarised the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials. 
- ↑ Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout the whole of Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar.
- ↑ , Extract of page 219
- ↑ , Extract of page 3
- ↑ Finocchiaro (2007).
- ↑ Isabelle Pantin (1999), "New Philosophy and Old Prejudices: Aspects of the Reception of Copernicanism in a Divided Europe", Stud. Hist. Phil. Sci. 30: 237–262
- ↑ Sharratt (1994, pp. 127–131), McMullin (2005a).
- ↑ Finocchiaro (1997), p. 47.
- ↑ Hilliam (2005), p. 96.
- ↑ Allan-Olney (1870)
- The Starry Messenger (1610; in Latin, Sidereus Nuncius)
- Discourse on Floating Bodies (1612)
- Letters on Sunspots (1613)
- Discourse on the Tides (1616; in Italian, Discorso del flusso e reflusso del mare)
- Discourse on the Comets (1619; in Italian, Discorso Delle Comete)
- (Galilei, 1623) ⇒ Galileo Galilei. (1623). “Il Saggiatore (The Assayer)."
- QUOTE: … If ears, tongues, and noses were removed, I am of the opinion that shape, quantity and motion would remain, but there would be an end of smells, tastes, and sounds. …
- Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632; in Italian Dialogo dei due massimi sistemi del mondo)
- Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615; published in 1636)