Java Programming Language
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- It can (typically) define legal Java Statements.
- It can (typically) be used to create Java Code (that can be represented as a Java AST), such as a Java program or Java class library.
- It can (typically) have few Code Dependencies.
- It can be a non-pure OO language in that it distinguishes primitive types (such as Java boolean type and Java int type) from Java reference types, and does not enable one to manipulate Java functions as program values.
- See: Concurrent Computing, Object-Oriented Programming, Write Once, Run Anywhere, Java Bytecode, Java Virtual Machine.
- (Wikipedia, 2021) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language) Retrieved:2021-2-22.
- Java is a class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. The Java runtime provides dynamic capabilities (such as reflection and runtime code modification) that are typically not available in traditional compiled languages. , Java was one of the most popular programming languages in use according to GitHub, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.  Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Oracle offers its own HotSpot Java Virtual Machine, however the official reference implementation is the OpenJDK JVM which is free open source software and used by most developers and is the default JVM for almost all Linux distributions. , the latest version is Java 15, with Java 11, a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version, released on September 25, 2018. Oracle released the last zero-cost public update for the legacy version Java 8 LTS in January 2019 for commercial use, although it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use indefinitely. Other vendors have begun to offer zero-cost builds of OpenJDK 8 and 11 that are still receiving security and other upgrades. Oracle (and others) highly recommend uninstalling outdated versions of Java because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues. Since Java 9, 10, 12, 13, and 14 are no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to immediately transition to the latest version (currently Java 15) or an LTS release.
- (Wikipedia, 2013) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language) Retrieved:2013-12-12.
- (Gosling et al., 1996) ⇒ James Gosling, Bill Joy, and Guy L. Steele. (1996). “The Java Language Specification, 1st Edition" In: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN: 0201634511.