Personality Disorder

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A Personality Disorder is a Mental Disorder that ...



  • (Wikipedia, 2017) ⇒ Retrieved:2017-2-16.
    • Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible, and are associated with significant distress or disability.[1] The definitions may vary somewhat, according to source. Official criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and in the mental and behavioral disorders section of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), published by the World Health Organization (WHO). The DSM-5 lists personality disorders in the same way as other mental disorders, rather than on a separate 'axis', as previously. [2] Personality, defined psychologically, is the set of enduring behavioral and mental traits that distinguish between individual humans. Hence, personality disorders are defined by experiences and behaviors that differ from societal norms and expectations. Those diagnosed with a personality disorder may experience difficulties in cognition, emotiveness, interpersonal functioning, or impulse control. In general, personality disorders are diagnosed in 40–60% of psychiatric patients, making them the most frequent of psychiatric diagnosis. [3] Personality disorders are characterized by an enduring collection of behavioral patterns often associated with considerable personal, social, and occupational disruption. Personality disorders are also inflexible and pervasive across many situations, largely due to the fact that such behavior may be ego-syntonic (i.e. the patterns are consistent with the ego integrity of the individual) and are therefore perceived to be appropriate for that individual. This behavior can result in maladaptive coping skills, may lead to personal problems that induce extreme anxiety, distress, or depression. [4] These patterns of behavior typically are recognized in adolescence and the beginning of adulthood and, in some unusual instances, childhood.[1] Many issues occur with classifying a personality disorder.[5] There are many categories of definition,some mild and some extreme. Because the theory and diagnosis of personality disorders occur within prevailing cultural expectations, their validity is contested by some experts on the basis of inevitable subjectivity. They argue that the theory and diagnosis of personality disorders are based strictly on social, or even sociopolitical and economic considerations. [6] [7] [8]
  1. 1.0 1.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DSM-5-general personality disorder
  2. A Guide to DSM-5: Personality Disorders Medscape Psychiatry, Bret S. Stetka, MD, Christoph U. Correll, May 21, 2013
  3. Saß, H. (2001). “Personality Disorders," pp. 11301-11308 in Smelser, N. J. & Baltes, P. B. (eds.) International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences, Amsterdam: Elsevier ISBN 978-0-08-043076-8
  4. Kernberg, O. (1984). Severe Personality Disorders. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300053495.
  5. Schacter, D. L.; Gilbert, D. T. and Wegner, D. M. (2011) Psychology, 2nd Edition. p. 330, ISBN 1429237198.
  6. Hickey, Philip. (2010-05-05) Personality Disorders Are Not Illnesses. Retrieved on 2013-04-16.
  7. Ancowitz, Nancy. (2010-08-06) A Giant Step Backward for Introverts (Nancy Ancowitz). Retrieved on 2013-04-16.
  8. Bradshaw, James. (2006-11-01) Glasser headlines psychotherapy conference. The National Psychologist. Retrieved on 2013-04-16.