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An Emotional State is a subjective experience that involves a psychophysiological response and a mental label (within an emotional agent).
- It can range from being a Positive Emotional State to being a Negative Emotional State.
- It can be attained by an Emotional Agent (with a capacity for emotion).
- It can range from (typically) being a Human Emotion, to being an Animal Emotion, to being an AI Emotion.
- It can range from being a Individual Emotion to being a Social Emotion.
- It can range from being a Flourishing Emotion to being a Languishing Emotion.
- It can be associated with a Psychophisiological Event, such as: a Feeling of Pain, Food Savouring, or Sexual Climax.
- a State of Joy, a State of Infatuation, a State of Love.
- a State of Fear or a State of Anger (in reaction to grave danger).
- a State of Sadness or a State of Pity (in reaction to personal loss).
- a State of Empathy.
- a State of Catharsis.
- a Social Emotion, such as envy and admiration.
- See: Emotion Regulation, Addiction, Conscious, Emotional Expression, Reciprocal Influence, Psychological Mood, Temperament, Personality Psychology.
- Yann LeCun. (2015). Emotions are the effect low-level/instinctive drives and the anticipations of rewards.
- QUOTE: (1) "AIs won't have emotions." They most likely will. Emotions are the effect low-level/instinctive drives and the anticipations of rewards.
- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/emotion Retrieved:2014-1-12.
- In psychology and philosophy, emotion is a subjective, conscious experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, and mental states. Emotion is often associated and considered reciprocally influential with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation. It also is influenced by hormones and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, oxytocin, cortisol and GABA. Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. An alternative definition of emotion is a "positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity." The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions. Although those acting primarily on emotion may seem as if they are not thinking, cognition is an important aspect of emotion, particularly the interpretation of events. For example, the experience of fear usually occurs in response to a threat. The cognition of danger and subsequent arousal of the nervous system (e.g. rapid heartbeat and breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is an integral component to the subsequent interpretation and labeling of that arousal as an emotional state. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Research on emotion has increased significantly over the past two decades with many fields contributing including psychology, neuroscience, endocrinology, medicine, history, sociology, and even computer science. The numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology, experience, and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic. Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. In addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective processes in the brain. 
- (Wikipedia, Simple, 2014) ⇒ http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_emotions#Robert_Plutchik.27s_theory Retrieved:2014-1-12.
- Robert Plutchik's theory of emotion says that the basic eight emotions are:
- Fear → feeling afraid. Other words are terror (strong fear), shock, phobia
- Anger → feeling angry. A stronger word is rage.
- Sadness → feeling sad. Other words are sorrow, grief (a stronger feeling, for example when someone has died) or depression (feeling sad for a long time). Some people think depression is a different emotion.
- Joy → feeling happy. Other words are happiness, gladness.
- Disgust → feeling something is wrong or dirty
- Trust → a positive emotion; admiration is stronger; acceptance is weaker
- Anticipation → in the sense of looking forward positively to something which is going to happen. Expectation is more neutral.
- Surprise → how one feels when something unexpected happens
- Robert Plutchik's theory of emotion says that the basic eight emotions are:
- (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010) ⇒ Todd B. Kashdan, and Jonathan Rottenberg. (2010). “Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health.” In: Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7).
- QUOTE: Traditionally, positive emotions and thoughts, strengths, and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, competence, and autonomy have been seen as the cornerstones of psychological health. …
- (Tamir, 2009) ⇒ Maya Tamir. (2009). “What do people want to feel and why? Pleasure and utility in emotion regulation.” In: Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(2).
- ABSTRACT: It is typically assumed that people always want to feel good. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that people want to feel unpleasant emotions, such as anger or fear, when these emotions promote the attainment of their long-term goals. If emotions are regulated for instrumental reasons, people should want to feel pleasant emotions when immediate benefits outweigh future benefits, but when future benefits outweigh immediate benefits, people may prefer to feel useful emotions, even if they are unpleasant. In this article, I describe an instrumental account of emotion regulation, review empirical evidence relevant to it, and discuss its implications for promoting adaptive emotional experiences.
- (Jaggar, 1989) ⇒ Alison M. Jaggar. (1989). “Love and Knowledge: Emotion in feminist epistemology.” In: Inquiry, 32(2). doi:10.1080/00201748908602185
- ABSTRACT: This paper argues that, by construing emotion as epistemologically subversive, the Western tradition has tended to obscure the vital role of emotion in the construction of knowledge. The paper begins with an account of emotion that stresses its active, voluntary, and socially constructed aspects, and indicates how emotion is involved in evaluation and observation. It then moves on to show how the myth of dispassionate investigation has functioned historically to undermine the epistemic authority of women as well as other social groups associated culturally with emotion. Finally, the paper sketches some ways in which the emotions of underclass groups, especially women, may contribute to the development of a critical social theory.
- (Schachter & Singer, 1962) ⇒ Stanley Schachter, and Jerome Singer. (1962). “Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State." Psychological review 69, no. 5
- ABSTRACT: It is suggested that emotional states may be considered a function of a state of physiological arousal and of a cognition appropriate to this state of arousal. From this follows these propositions: (a) Given a state of physiological arousal for which an individual has no immediate explanation, he will label this state and describe his feelings in terms of the cognitions available to him…. (b) Given a state of physiological arousal for which an individual has a completely appropriate explanation, no evaluative needs will arise and the individual is unlikely to label his feelings in terms of the alternative cognitions available. (c) Given the same cognitive circumstances, the individual will react emotionally or describe his feelings as emotions only to the extent that he experiences a state of physiological arousal. An experiment is described which, together with the results of other studies, supports these propositions.