Natural Language Grammar System

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A Natural Language Grammar System is a grammar system used by linguistic agents (to create linguistic expressions).



  • (Crystal, 2008) ⇒ David Crystal. (2008). “A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th edition." Blackwell Publishing.
    • QUOTE: … (5) … In this sense, grammar is the study of the way WORDS, and their component parts, combine to form SENTENCES. … Here, 'grammar' subsumes phonology and semantics as well as syntax, traditionally regarded as separate linguistic LEVELS. 'A grammar', in this sense, is a device for generating a finite specification of sentences of a language. In so far as a grammar defines the total set of RULES possessed by a speaker, it is a grammar of the speaker's competent (competence grammar). In so far as a grammar is capable of accounting for only the sentences a speaker has actually used (as found in a sample of output, or CORPUS), it is a performance grammar.)
    • QUOTE: … Lexis may be seen in contrast with GRAMMAR, as in the distinction between 'grammatical WORDS' and lexical words: the former refers to words whose sole function is to signal grammatical relationships (a role which is claimed for such words as of, to and the in English); the latter refers to words which have lexical meaning, i.e. they have semantic CONTENT. Examples include lexical verbs (versus auxiliary verbs) and lexical noun phrases (versus non-lexical NPs, such as PRO). A similar contrast distinguishes lexical morphology from derivational MORPHOLOGY.


  • (Matthews, 2007) ⇒ Peter H Matthews. (2007). “Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistics." Oxford University Press
    • QUOTE: grammar Any systematic account of the structure of a language; the patterns that it describes; the branch of linguistics concerned with such patterns. Often restricted to relations among units that have meaning. Hence opp. phonology: e.g. singing is a grammatical unit, as are sing and -ing, while [s] or the syllable [si] are phonological. Also opposed, though again not always, to a dictionary or the lexicon. E.g. the meanings of sing belong to its entry in the lexicon; the role of -ing to grammar, where it is described for verbs in general. When limited in these ways, the study of grammar reduces to that of morphology and syntax.


  • (Sag et al., 2003) ⇒ Ivan A. Sag, Thomas Wasow, and Emily M. Bender. (2003). “Syntactic Theory: A Formal Introduction, 2nd edition." CSLI Publications.
    • QUOTE: The term 'syntax' is often used instead of 'grammar' in technical work in linguistics. While the two terms are sometimes interchangeable, 'grammar' may also be used more broadly to cover all aspects of language structure; 'syntax', on the other hand, refers only the the ways in which words combine in phrases and phrases in sentences - the form or structures of well-formed expressions. Linguists divide grammar into 'syntax', 'semantics' (the study of linguistic meaning), 'morphology' (the study of word structure,), and 'phonology' (the study of sound patterns of language). Although these distinctions are conceptually clear, many phenomena in natural languages involve more than one of these components of grammar.