# Brownian Motion

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A Brownian Motion is a random motion of a particle group suspended in a fluid resulting from their collision with the fluid's molecules.

## References

### 2014

- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownian_motion Retrieved:2014-7-26.
**Brownian motion**or pedesis (from "leaping" ) is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the quick atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid. The term "Brownian motion" can also refer to the mathematical model used to describe such random movements, which is often called a particle theory. This transport phenomenon is named after the botanist Robert Brown. In 1827, while looking through a microscope at particles found in pollen grains in water, he noted that the particles moved through the water but was not able to determine the mechanisms that caused this motion. Atoms and molecules had long been theorized as the constituents of matter, and many decades later, Albert Einstein published a paper in 1905 that explained in precise detail how the motion that Brown had observed was a result of the pollen being moved by individual water molecules. This explanation of Brownian motion served as definitive confirmation that atoms and molecules actually exist, and was further verified experimentally by Jean Perrin in 1908. Perrin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1926 "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter" (Einstein had received the award five years earlier "for his services to theoretical physics" with specific citation of different research). The direction of the force of atomic bombardment is constantly changing, and at different times the particle is hit more on one side than another, leading to the seemingly random nature of the motion. The mathematical model of Brownian motion has numerous real-world applications. For instance, Stock market fluctuations are often cited, although Benoit Mandelbrot rejected its applicability to stock price movements in part because these are discontinuous.Brownian motion is among the simplest of the continuous-time stochastic (or probabilistic) processes, and it is a limit of both simpler and more complicated stochastic processes (see random walk and Donsker's theorem). This universality is closely related to the universality of the normal distribution. In both cases, it is often mathematical convenience rather than the accuracy of the models that motivates their use.

### 1905

- (Einstein, 1905b) ⇒ Albert Einstein. (1905). “Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen.” In: Annalen der Physik, 17(8). doi:10.1002/andp.19053220806
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*On the Motion - Required by Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat – of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid*”

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