Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914)
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- (Wikipedia, 2018) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Sanders_Peirce Retrieved:2018-3-6.
- Charles Sanders Peirce (  like "purse"; September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism”. He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for 30 years. Today he is appreciated largely for his contributions to logic, mathematics, philosophy, scientific methodology, and semiotics, and for his founding of pragmatism. An innovator in mathematics, statistics, philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician. He made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that which is now called epistemology and philosophy of science. He saw logic as the formal branch of semiotics, of which he is a founder, which foreshadowed the debate among logical positivists and proposents of philosophy of language that dominated 20th century Western philosophy; additionally, he defined the concept of abductive reasoning, as well as rigorously formulated mathematical induction and deductive reasoning. As early as 1886 he saw that logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits; the same idea was used decades later to produce digital computers. In 1934, the philosopher Paul Weiss called Peirce "the most original and versatile of American philosophers and America's greatest logician." Webster's Biographical Dictionary said in 1943 that Peirce was "now regarded as the most original thinker and greatest logician of his time." Keith Devlin similarly referred to Peirce as one of the greatest philosophers ever.
- "Peirce", in the case of C.S. Peirce, always rhymes with the English-language word "terse" and so, in most dialects, is pronounced exactly like the English-language word "". See "Note on the Pronunciation of 'Peirce'", Peirce Project Newsletter, v. 1, nos. 3/4, December 1994.
- Peirce, C. S., "Letter, Peirce to A. Marquand", dated 1886, W 5:541–3, Google Preview. See Burks, Arthur W., "Review: Charles S. Peirce, The new elements of mathematics, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society v. 84, n. 5 (1978), pp. 913–18, see 917. PDF Eprint. Also p. xliv in Houser, Nathan, Introduction, W 5.
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=== * Peirce, Charles Sanders. "The fixation of belief." 1877 (1877).