# Dependent and Independent Variables

## References

### 2015

• (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_and_independent_variables Retrieved:2015-6-6.
• Variables used in an experiment or modelling can be divided into three types: "dependent variable", "independent variable", or other. The "dependent variable" represents the output or effect, or is tested to see if it is the effect. The "independent variables" represent the inputs or causes, or are tested to see if they are the cause. Other variables may also be observed for various reasons.

• (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependent_and_independent_variables#Statistics_synonyms Retrieved:2015-6-6.
• An independent variable is also known as a "predictor variable", "regressor", "controlled variable", "manipulated variable", "explanatory variable", “exposure variable” (see reliability theory), “risk factor” (see medical statistics), “feature” (in machine learning and pattern recognition) or an "input variable."[1] [2] "Explanatory variable"is preferred by some authors over "independent variable" when the quantities treated as "independent variables" may not be statistically independent.[3] [4]

A dependent variable is also known as a "response variable", "regressand", "measured variable", "responding variable", "explained variable", "outcome variable", "experimental variable", and "output variable".[2] If the independent variable is referred to as an "explanatory variable" (see above) then the term "response variable"is preferred by some authors for the dependent variable.[2][3][4]

Variables may also be referred to by their form: continuous, binary/dichotomous, nominal categorical, and ordinal categorical, among others.

1. Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9 (entry for "independent variable")
2. Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9 (entry for "regression")
3. Everitt, B.S. (2002) Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics, CUP. ISBN 0-521-81099-X
4. Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9