# Partial Differential Equation (PDE)

A Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is a differential equation that involve functions and their partial derivatives.

**Context:**- It can range from linear partial differential equation to nonlinear partial differential equation.
- It can range from homogeneous partial differential equation to nonhomogeneous partial differential equation.
- It can be models of various physical and geometrical problems, arising when the unknown functions (the solutions) depend on two or more variables, usually on time [math]t[/math] and one or several space variables.
- It can be associated to a Partial Derivative.
- It can be solved by PDE Solver (solving a PDE task).

**Example(s):**- one dimensional wave equation ([math]\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2}=c^2 \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2}[/math]).
- a Schrödinger Equation.

**Counter-Example(s):****See:**Differential Equation, Finite Element Algorithm, System of Equations, Fluid Flow, Continuous Distribution, Electrodynamics, Linear Map, Heat Equation, Wave Equation, Laplace's Equation.

## References

### 2018

- (Wikipedia, 2018) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partial_differential_equation Retrieved:2018-6-27.
- In mathematics, a
**partial differential equation**(**PDE**) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives. PDEs are used to formulate problems involving functions of several variables, and are either solved by hand, or used to create a relevant computer model. A special case is ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which deal with functions of a single variable and their derivatives.PDEs can be used to describe a wide variety of phenomena such as sound, heat, electrostatics, electrodynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity, or quantum mechanics. These seemingly distinct physical phenomena can be formalised similarly in terms of PDEs. Just as ordinary differential equations often model one-dimensional dynamical systems, partial differential equations often model multidimensional systems. PDEs find their generalisation in stochastic partial differential equations.

- In mathematics, a

### 2014

- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/partial_differential_equation#Introduction Retrieved:2014-12-3.
- Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that involve rates of change with respect to continuous variables. The position of a rigid body is specified by six numbers, but the configuration of a fluid is given by the continuous distribution of several parameters, such as the temperature, pressure, and so forth. The dynamics for the rigid body take place in a finite-dimensional configuration space; the dynamics for the fluid occur in an infinite-dimensional conﬁguration space. This distinction usually makes PDEs much harder to solve than ordinary differential equations (ODEs), but here again there will be simple solutions for linear problems. Classic domains where PDEs are used include acoustics, fluid flow, electrodynamics, and heat transfer.
A partial differential equation (PDE) for the function [math]u(x_1, \cdots, x_n)[/math] is an equation of the form

: [math]F \left (x_1, \ldots, x_n, u, \frac{\partial u}{\partial x_1}, \ldots, \frac{\partial u}{\partial x_n}, \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x_1 \partial x_1}, \ldots, \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x_1 \partial x_n}, \ldots \right) = 0.[/math]

If

*F*is a linear function of*u*and its derivatives, then the PDE is called linear. Common examples of linear PDEs include the heat equation, the wave equation, Laplace's equation, Helmholtz equation, Klein–Gordon equation, and Poisson's equation.A relatively simple PDE is

: [math]\frac{\partial u}{\partial x}(x,y) = 0.~[/math]

This relation implies that the function

*u*(*x*,*y*) is independent of*x*. However, the equation gives no information on the function's dependence on the variable*y*. Hence the general solution of this equation is: [math]u(x,y) = f(y),[/math]

where

*f*is an arbitrary function of*y*. The analogous ordinary differential equation is: [math]\frac{\mathrm{d} u}{\mathrm{d} x}(x) = 0,[/math]

which has the solution

: [math]u(x) = c,[/math]

where

*c*is any constant value. These two examples illustrate that general solutions of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) involve arbitrary constants, but solutions of PDEs involve arbitrary functions. A solution of a PDE is generally not unique; additional conditions must generally be specified on the boundary of the region where the solution is defined. For instance, in the simple example above, the function*f(y)*can be determined if*u*is specified on the line*x*= 0.

- Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that involve rates of change with respect to continuous variables. The position of a rigid body is specified by six numbers, but the configuration of a fluid is given by the continuous distribution of several parameters, such as the temperature, pressure, and so forth. The dynamics for the rigid body take place in a finite-dimensional configuration space; the dynamics for the fluid occur in an infinite-dimensional conﬁguration space. This distinction usually makes PDEs much harder to solve than ordinary differential equations (ODEs), but here again there will be simple solutions for linear problems. Classic domains where PDEs are used include acoustics, fluid flow, electrodynamics, and heat transfer.

### 1950

- (Hopf, 1950) ⇒ Eberhard Hopf. (1950). “The partial differential equation ut + uux = xx.” In: Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 3(3).

### 1944

- (Bateman, 1944) ⇒ Harry Bateman. (1944). “Partial Differential Equations." Read Books. ISBN:1406743747