Ant

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An Ant is a social insect of the Formicaidae family with elbowed antennae and a slender node-like structure.



References

2013

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant
    • Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae (11px /fɔrˈmɪsɪd/) and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 out of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified.[1][2] They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist.

      Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies that may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. Larger colonies consist mostly of sterile wingless females forming castes of "workers", "soldiers", or other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called "drones" and one or more fertile females called “queens”. The colonies sometimes are described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity, collectively working together to support the colony.[3]

      Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and a few remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems and may form 15–25% of the terrestrial animal biomass.[4] Their success in so many environments has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships.[5]

      Ant societies have division of labour, communication between individuals, and an ability to solve complex problems.[6] These parallels with human societies have long been an inspiration and subject of study. Many human cultures make use of ants in cuisine, medication, and rituals. Some species are valued in their role as biological pest control agents.[7] Their ability to exploit resources may bring ants into conflict with humans, however, as they can damage crops and invade buildings. Some species, such as the red imported fire ant, are regarded as invasive species, establishing themselves in areas where they have been introduced accidentally.[8]

  1. "Hymenoptera name server. Formicidae species count.". Ohio State University. http://atbi.biosci.ohio-state.edu:210/hymenoptera/tsa.sppcount?the_taxon=Formicidae. 
  2. La nueva taxonomía de hormigas. Pages 45–48 in Fernández, F. Introducción a las hormigas de la región neotropical.. Instituto Humboldt, Bogotá. 2003. http://antbase.org/ants/publications/20973/20973.pdf. 
  3. Oster GF, Wilson EO (1978). Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press, Princeton. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0-691-02361-1. 
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named schultz
  5. Hölldobler & Wilson (1990), p. 471
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SANdisk
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named HolldoblerWilsonAnts3
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pests

2010

1989

  • (Goss et al., 1989) ⇒ S. Goss, S. Aron, J. L. Deneubourg, and J. M. Pasteels. (1989). “Self-organized shortcuts in the Argentine ant". Naturwissenschaften 76 (12): 579–581. Bibcode 1989NW.....76..579G. doi:10.1007/BF00462870.