Intrinsic Motivation

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An Intrinsic Motivation is an agent motive that has intrinsic benefits (created by the agent).

  • Context:
    • ...
  • Example(s):
    • based on the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate.
    • ...
  • Counter-Example(s):
  • See: Self-Motivation Skill.


References

2014

  • (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation#Intrinsic_and_extrinsic_motivation Retrieved:2014-11-26.
    • Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and new challenges, to analyze one's capacity, to observe and to gain knowledge.[1] It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development.[2] Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.[3] Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:
      • attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy or locus of control
      • believe they have the skills to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals, also known as self-efficacy beliefs
      • are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades
    • … Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition.[4] However, another study showed that third graders who were rewarded with a book showed more reading behavior in the future, implying that some rewards do not undermine intrinsic motivation.[5] While the provision of extrinsic rewards might reduce the desirability of an activity, the use of extrinsic constraints, such as the threat of punishment, against performing an activity has actually been found to increase one's intrinsic interest in that activity. In one study, when children were given mild threats against playing with an attractive toy, it was found that the threat actually served to increase the child's interest in the toy, which was previously undesirable to the child in the absence of threat.[6]
  1. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
  2. Ryan, Richard; Edward L. Deci (2000). "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions". Contemporary Educational Psychology 25 (1): 54–67. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020. 
  3. Wigfield, A., Guthrie, J. T., Tonks, S., & Perencevich, K. C. (2004). Children's motivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences. Journal of Educational Research, 97, 299-309.
  4. Mark R. Lepper, David Greene and Richard Nisbet, "Undermining Children’s Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward; A Test of ‘Overjustification’ Hypothesis," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28, 1973, 129‐37.
  5. Barbara A. Marinak and Linda B. Gambrell, "Intrinsic Motivation and Rewards: What Sustains Young Children’s Engagement with Text?," Literacy Research and Instruction 47, 2008, 9-26.
  6. Wilson, T. D., & Lassiter, G. D. (1982). Increasing intrinsic interest with superfluous extrinsic constraints. Journal of personality and social psychology, 42(5), 811-819.


2003

  • (Lakhani & Wolf, 2003) ⇒ Karim R. Lakhani, and Robert G. Wolf. (2003). “Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free / open Source Software Projects.” MIT Sloan Working Paper No. 4425-03,
    • ABSTRACT: ... Academic theorizing on individual motivations for participating in F/OSS projects has posited that external motivational factors in the form of extrinsic benefits (e.g.: better jobs, career advancement) are the main drivers of effort. We find in contrast, that enjoyment-based intrinsic motivation, namely how creative a person feels when working on the project, is the strongest and most pervasive driver. We also find that user need, intellectual stimulation derived from writing code, and improving programming skills are top motivators for project participation. ...

2000