# System Model

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A system model is an abstract composite entity that represents/simulates some aspect of a referent system.

**AKA:**Conceptualization/Representation.**Context:**- It can range from being an Informal Model (such as an informal specification) to being a formal model (such as an ontology).
- It can range from being a Physical Model to being an Abstract Model.
- It can range from being an Elegant Model to being a Crude Model.
- It can range from being a Simple Model to being a Metamodel (possibly a modeling language).
- It can be composed of Reference Entities and some of the Relations between them.
- It can be measured in terms of Accuracy (can be ambiguous).
- It can help an Agent to Predict something about system behavior.
- It can include a Model Mapping Function (that maps external objects into the model).

**Example(s):**- A planetary model.
- A map. (a Physical Model).
- Mendelev's Chemical Elements Chart.
- a Mathematical Model, such as:
- a Statistical Model), such as:

- A Logical Data Model.
- An Ontology (a semantic model).
- A Process Model.
- a Specification.
- a Design.
- …

**Counter-Example(s):****See:**Knowledge Representation, Software Requirements Specification, System Test.

## References

### 2014

- http://www.w3.org/2013/06/model-ref-20130418.html
- A "model" refers to an abstract description of the composition and relative dynamic behaviour of the sub-parts of some system

### 2009

- (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_(physical)
- A physical model is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object. The object being modelled may be small (for example, an atom) or large (for example, the Solar System).

- (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_(science)
- Scientific modeling is the process of generating abstract, conceptual, graphical and or mathematical models. Science offers a growing collection of methods, and theory about all kinds of specialized scientific modeling.

- (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_(logic)
- In mathematics, model theory is the study of (classes of) mathematical structures such as groups, fields, graphs or even models of set theory using tools from mathematical logic. Model theory has close ties to algebra and universal algebra.

- (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_(model_theory)
- In universal algebra and in model theory, a structure is a type of formal interpretation which consists of an underlying set along with a collection of finitary functions and relations which are defined on it. ...

### 1998

- (Kohavi & Provost, 1998) ⇒ Ron Kohavi, and Foster Provost. (1998). “Glossary of Terms.” In: Machine Leanring 30(2-3).
- Model: A structure and corresponding interpretation that summarizes or partially summarizes a set of data, for description or prediction. Most inductive algorithms generate models that can then be used as classifiers, as regressors, as patterns for human consumption, and/or as input to subsequent stages of the KDD process.

### 1993

- (Gruber, 1993) ⇒ Tom Gruber. (1993). “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications." Knowledge Acquisition, 2(5):199--220.
- A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of the world that we wish to represent for some purpose. Every knowledge base, knowledge-based system, or knowledge-level agent is committed to some conceptualization, explicitly or implicitly. An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization.".