Transhumanist Ideology

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A Transhumanist Ideology is an humanist ideology that aims to transform the human condition through the use of advanced technology.

  • Context:
    • It can be held by a Transhumanist living a Transhumanist Practice.
    • It can aim to greatly enhance Human Capabilities.
    • It can (often) involves beliefs in the desirability of fundamentally altering human biology through technological means, including potential changes like longevity, mood enhancement, cognitive improvement, and physical augmentation.
    • It can incorporate the belief in a future post-human state, in which humans may be radically changed or supplanted by artificial intelligence or other technological creations.
    • It can involve an interest in and study of the ethical, moral, and societal implications of such changes (technoethics).
  • Example(s):
    • One that advocates for research into genetic modification technologies for human enhancement.
    • One that proposes ethical frameworks for the development and use of artificial intelligence.
    • One that prepares for potential future scenarios involving significant technological change.
  • Counter-Example(s):
    • Effective Altruism Ideology, which focuses on optimizing altruistic outcomes rather than primarily pursuing human enhancement.
    • Existentialist Ideology, which emphasizes individual choice and personal meaning, and does not necessarily focus on technological transformation of the human condition.
    • Religious Ideologies, which may reject the modification of the human condition through technology due to spiritual or moral reasons.
  • See: Futurist, Intellectual Movement, Human Condition, Human Enhancement, Emerging Technologies, Technoethics, Posthuman, Futures Studies.



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    • Transhumanism is a philosophical and intellectual movement that advocates for the enhancement of the Human Condition through the application of advanced technologies. The goal is to improve human capabilities, both physically and mentally, and to overcome fundamental human limitations such as aging, diseases, and even mortality. Transhumanists also explore the ethical, social, and political implications of these technologies.
    • The history of Transhumanism can be traced back to various sources, including early speculations about the future of humanity and technological advancements. Some key moments and figures in the history of Transhumanism include:
      1. . In the early 20th century, British scientist and author J.B.S. Haldane discussed the possibility of using scientific advancements to improve the human species in his essay "Daedalus: Science and the Future" (1924).
      2. . The term "transhumanism" was coined by biologist and philosopher Julian Huxley in his 1957 essay "Transhumanism," where he discussed the potential for humans to evolve beyond their current physical and mental limitations.
      3. . In the 1960s and 1970s, American futurist and author F.M. Esfandiary (later known as FM-2030) popularized the concept of Transhumanism through his writings and lectures, advocating for radical life extension and technological advancements to enhance human capabilities.
      4. . In the 1980s and 1990s, the movement gained more traction with the emergence of prominent figures such as Max More, who founded the Extropy Institute and developed the philosophy of Extropianism, a precursor to modern Transhumanism.
      5. . In 1998, the World Transhumanist Association (now known as Humanity+ or H+) was founded by philosophers Nick Bostrom and David Pearce, further promoting the ideas of Transhumanism and providing an organizational structure for the movement.
    • Since then, Transhumanism has continued to evolve and gain prominence, with many researchers, scientists, and futurists exploring the possibilities and implications of technologies such as Artificial Intelligence, Genetic Engineering, Nanotechnology, and Brain-Computer Interfaces in the context of human enhancement.


  • Meghan O'Gieblyn. (2023). "God in the machine: my strange journey into transhumanism." In: The Guardian
    • QUOTE: ... Transhumanists have acknowledged Teilhard and Fedorov as forerunners of their movement, but the religious context of their ideas is rarely mentioned. Most histories of the movement attribute the first use of the term transhumanism to Julian Huxley, the British eugenicist and close friend of Teilhard’s who, in the 1950s, expanded on many of the priest’s ideas in his own writings – with one key exception. Huxley, a secular humanist, believed that Teilhard’s visions need not be grounded in any larger religious narrative. In 1951, he gave a lecture that proposed a non-religious version of the priest’s ideas. “Such a broad philosophy,” he wrote, “might perhaps be called, not Humanism, because that has certain unsatisfactory connotations, but Transhumanism. It is the idea of humanity attempting to overcome its limitations and to arrive at fuller fruition.” ...


  • (Wikipedia, 2017) ⇒ Retrieved:2017-4-18.
    • Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international and intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of using such technologies. The most common transhumanist thesis is that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into different beings with abilities so greatly expanded from the natural condition as to merit the label of posthuman beings. The contemporary meaning of the term "transhumanism" was foreshadowed by one of the first professors of futurology, FM-2030, who taught "new concepts of the human" at The New School in the 1960s, when he began to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and worldviews "transitional" to posthumanity as “transhuman”. This hypothesis would lay the intellectual groundwork for the British philosopher Max More to begin articulating the principles of transhumanism as a futurist philosophy in 1990 and organizing in California an intelligentsia that has since grown into the worldwide transhumanist movement.

      Influenced by seminal works of science fiction, the transhumanist vision of a transformed future humanity has attracted many supporters and detractors from a wide range of perspectives, including philosophy and religion. Transhumanism has been characterized by one critic, Francis Fukuyama, as among the “world's most dangerous ideas", to which Ronald Bailey has countered that it is rather the "movement that epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative and idealistic aspirations of humanity".


  • (Harari, 2016) ⇒ Yuval Noah Harari. (2016). “Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow." Harper. ISBN:9780062464316
    • Notes: Harari explores potential future developments in biotechnology and artificial intelligence and their implications for humanity.


  • (Bostrom, 2014) ⇒ Nick Bostrom. (2014). “Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies." Oxford University Press. ISBN:9780199678112
    • Notes: Bostrom examines the concept of superintelligent artificial intelligence and ponders the potential risks and strategies for managing it.


  • (Kurzweil, 2005) ⇒ Ray Kurzweil. (2005). “The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology." Penguin Books. ISBN:9780143037880
    • Notes: Kurzweil predicts that advancements in technology will lead to a “technological singularity” where artificial intelligence will surpass human intelligence.