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An Abductive Reasoning Task is a non-monotonic reasoning task that requires an abductive argument.

## References

### 2022

• (Wikipedia, 2022) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abductive_reasoning Retrieved:2022-4-19.
• Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,[1] abductive inference,[1] or retroduction ) is a form of logical inference formulated and advanced by American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce beginning in the last third of the 19th century. It starts with an observation or set of observations and then seeks the simplest and most likely conclusion from the observations. This process, unlike deductive reasoning, yields a plausible conclusion but does not positively verify it. Abductive conclusions are thus qualified as having a remnant of uncertainty or doubt, which is expressed in retreat terms such as "best available" or "most likely". One can understand abductive reasoning as inference to the best explanation, although not all usages of the terms abduction and inference to the best explanation are exactly equivalent. In the 1990s, as computing power grew, the fields of law, [2] computer science, and artificial intelligence research[3] spurred renewed interest in the subject of abduction. Diagnostic expert systems frequently employ abduction. [4]
1. For example:
2. See, e.g. Analysis of Evidence, 2d ed. by Terence Anderson (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
3. For examples, see "Abductive Inference in Reasoning and Perception", John R. Josephson, Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research, Ohio State University, and Abduction, Reason, and Science. Processes of Discovery and Explanation by Lorenzo Magnani (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 2001).
4. Reggia, James A., et al. “Answer justification in diagnostic expert systems-Part I: Abductive inference and its justification.” IEEE transactions on biomedical engineering 4 (1985): 263-267.

### 2022

• (Simple Wikipedia, 2022) ⇒ https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abduction_(logic)
• Abduction is the kind of practical logic which answers questions of the type "how did this come about?". It produces answers which are not guaranteed to be correct. Consider the observation that the lawn is wet in the morning. How did that happen? In London, the answer is most often that it rained. But in Los Angeles it is much more likely that someone left the sprinkler on.

Abduction is logical inference which goes from an observation to a theory which accounts for the observation. It makes the simplest and most likely explanation. In abductive reasoning, unlike in deductive reasoning, the premises do not guarantee the conclusion. Abductive reasoning is "inference to the best explanation".