# Inference

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An Inference is a statement/proposition drawn from another which is supposed to be true.

**Context:**- It can (typically) be the output of a Reasoning Task.
- It can range from being a Deductive Inference to being an Inductive Inference (or abductive inference).
- It can range from being a Deterministic Inference to being a Non-Deterministic Inference (such as a statistical inference).
- …

**Example(s):****Counter-Example(s):****See:**True Statement, Reasoning Task, Inductive Inference, Deductive Inference, Abductive Inference, Mathematical Inference, Empirical Inference, Grammatical Inference.

## References

### 2021

- (Wikipedia, 2021) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/inference Retrieved:2021-11-27.
**Inferences**are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences; etymologically, the word*infer*means to "carry forward". Inference is theoretically traditionally divided into deduction and induction, a distinction that in Europe dates at least to Aristotle (300s BCE). Deduction is inference deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true, with the laws of valid inference being studied in logic. Induction is inference from particular premises to a universal conclusion. A third type of inference is sometimes distinguished, notably by Charles Sanders Peirce, contradistinguishing abduction from induction.Various fields study how inference is done in practice. Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the fields of logic, argumentation studies, and cognitive psychology; artificial intelligence researchers develop automated inference systems to emulate human inference. Statistical inference uses mathematics to draw conclusions in the presence of uncertainty. This generalizes deterministic reasoning, with the absence of uncertainty as a special case. Statistical inference uses quantitative or qualitative (categorical) data which may be subject to random variations.

### 2009a

- (WordNet, 2009) ⇒ http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=inference
- S: (n) inference, illation (the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation)

### 2009b

- Wiktionary http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/inference
- Inference (countable and uncountable; plural inferences)
- 1. (uncountable) The act or process of inferring by deduction or induction.
- 2. (countable) That which is inferred; a truth or proposition drawn from another which is admitted or supposed to be true; a conclusion; a deduction.

- Derived terms

- Inference (countable and uncountable; plural inferences)

### 2009c

- (WordNet, 2009) ⇒ http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=infer
- Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows.
- infer - deduce: reason by deduction; establish by deduction
- infer - generalize: draw from specific cases for more general cases
- infer - deduce: conclude by reasoning; in logic
- infer - guess: guess correctly; solve by guessing; "He guessed the right number of beans in the jar and won the prize"
- infer - understand: believe to be the case; "I understand you have no previous experience?"

### 2009d

- CYC Glossary http://www.cyc.com/cycdoc/ref/glossary.html
- inferred: An adjective used to describe the type of argument consisting of a set of assertions which together entail some other assertion. Inferred arguments are also called deductions.