Distributed Computing System

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A Distributed Computing System is a computing system composed of several interconnected computing systems.



  1. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Steen, Maarten van (2002) "Distributed systems: principles and paradigms". Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. ISBN:0-13-088893-1
  2. Andrews, Gregory R. (2000), "Foundations of Multithreaded, Parallel, and Distributed Programming", Addison–Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-35752-3.
  3. Dolev, Shlomi (2000), Self-Stabilization, MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-04178-2.
  4. Ghosh, Sukumar (2007), Distributed Systems – An Algorithmic Approach, Chapman & Hall/CRC, ISBN 978-1-58488-564-1.
  5. Magnoni, L. (2015). "Modern Messaging for Distributed Sytems (sic)". Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 608 (1): 012038. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/608/1/012038. ISSN 1742-6596
  6. Godfrey, Bill (2002). "A primer on distributed computing"


  • (Wikipedia, 2021) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_computing#Architectures Retrieved:2021-10-2.
    • Various hardware and software architectures are used for distributed computing. At a lower level, it is necessary to interconnect multiple CPUs with some sort of network, regardless of whether that network is printed onto a circuit board or made up of loosely coupled devices and cables. At a higher level, it is necessary to interconnect processes running on those CPUs with some sort of communication system.[1]
      • Client–server: architectures where smart clients contact the server for data then format and display it to the users. Input at the client is committed back to the server when it represents a permanent change.
      • Three-tier: architectures that move the client intelligence to a middle tier so that stateless clients can be used. This simplifies application deployment. Most web applications are three-tier.
      • n-tier: architectures that refer typically to web applications which further forward their requests to other enterprise services. This type of application is the one most responsible for the success of application servers.
      • Peer-to-peer: architectures where there are no special machines that provide a service or manage the network resources.[2] Instead all responsibilities are uniformly divided among all machines, known as peers. Peers can serve both as clients and as servers.[3] Examples of this architecture include BitTorrent and the bitcoin network.
Another basic aspect of distributed computing architecture is the method of communicating and coordinating work among concurrent processes. Through various message passing protocols, processes may communicate directly with one another, typically in a master/slave relationship. Alternatively, a "database-centric" architecture can enable distributed computing to be done without any form of direct inter-process communication, by utilizing a shared database.[4] Database-centric architecture in particular provides relational processing analytics in a schematic architecture allowing for live environment relay. This enables distributed computing functions both within and beyond the parameters of a networked database.[5]
  1. Ohlídal, M.; Jaroš, J.; Schwarz, J.; et al. (2006). “Evolutionary Design of OAB and AAB Communication Schedules for Interconnection Networks". In Rothlauf, F.; Branke, J.; Cagnoni, S. (eds.). Applications of Evolutionary Computing. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 267–78. ISBN 9783540332374.
  2. Vigna P, Casey MJ. The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and the Blockchain Are Challenging the Global Economic Order St. Martin's Press January 27, 2015 ISBN 9781250065636
  3. Hieu., Vu, Quang (2010). Peer-to-peer computing : principles and applications. Lupu, Mihai., Ooi, Beng Chin, 1961-. Heidelberg: Springer. p. 16. ISBN 9783642035135. OCLC 663093862
  4. Lind P, Alm M (2006), "A database-centric virtual chemistry system", J Chem Inf Model, 46 (3): 1034–9, doi:10.1021/ci050360b, PMID 1671172
  5. Chiu, G (1990). “A model for optimal database allocation in distributed computing systems". Proceedings. IEEE INFOCOM'90: Ninth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies.





2003 ComparisonofCentralizedClientSe Fig1.png
Figure 1: Classification of Computer Systems.