Grammatical Mood

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A Grammatical Mood is a relationship type between a verb and the intent of the sentence. (a verb category??).



  • (Wikipedia, 2021) ⇒ Retrieved:2021-2-24.
    • In linguistics, grammatical mood is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signalling modality. [1] [2] That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (for example, a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.). The term is also used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality – that is, the use of verb phrases that do not involve inflection of the verb itself. Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages. (See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of this.) Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. These are all finite forms of the verb. Infinitives, gerunds, and participles, which are non-finite forms of the verb, are not considered to be examples of moods. Some Uralic Samoyedic languages have more than ten moods; Nenets has as many as sixteen. The original Indo-European inventory of moods consisted of indicative, subjunctive, optative, and imperative. Not every Indo-European language has all of these moods, but the most conservative ones such as Avestan, Ancient Greek, and Vedic Sanskrit have them all. English has indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods; other moods, such as the conditional, do not appear as morphologically distinct forms.

      Not all of the moods listed below are clearly conceptually distinct. Individual terminology varies from language to language, and the coverage of, for example, the "conditional" mood in one language may largely overlap with that of the "hypothetical" or "potential" mood in another. Even when two different moods exist in the same language, their respective usages may blur, or may be defined by syntactic rather than semantic criteria. For example, the subjunctive and optative moods in Ancient Greek alternate syntactically in many subordinate clauses, depending on the tense of the main verb. The usage of the indicative, subjunctive, and jussive moods in Classical Arabic is almost completely controlled by syntactic context. The only possible alternation in the same context is between indicative and jussive following the negative particle .

  1. Palmer, F. R., Mood and Modality, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1986 (second edition 2001).
  2. Bybee, Joan; Perkins, Revere; and Pagliuca, William. The Evolution of Grammar, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1994.


  • (Müller et al., 2007) ⇒ Ulrich Müller, Michael R. Miller, Kurt Michalczyk, and Aaron Karapinka. (2007). “False Belief Understanding: The Influence of Person, Grammatical Mood, Counterfactual Reasoning and Working Memory.” British Journal of Developmental Psychology 25, no. 4
    • ABSTRACT: The present study had two major goals. The first goal was to assess the relative difficulty among different versions of the unexpected contents task by systematically varying the dimensions of grammatical mood (indicative vs. subjunctive) and person (self vs. other), and to examine the correlational pattern between these different versions of the unexpected contents task and the unexpected locations task. The second goal was to examine the specificity of the relation between false belief understanding and counterfactual reasoning after controlling for age and working memory ability. …



    • QUOTE: ... In the grammar of many languages there is a concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relation of the verb to reality or intent in speaking. Many languages express distinctions of mood by changing (inflecting) the form of the verb.