A Word-level Semantic Analysis Task is a word-level analysis task that is a shallow semantic analysis task in that it identifies the concepts that a concept mention represents.
- (Wikipedia - Lexical Semantics, 2011) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexical_semantics
- Lexical semantics is a subfield of linguistic semantics. It is the study of how and what the words of a language denote (Pustejovsky, 1995). Words may either be taken to denote things in the world, or concepts, depending on the particular approach to lexical semantics. The units of meaning in lexical semantics are lexical units, which a speaker can continually add to throughout their life, learning new words and their meanings. By contrast, one can only easily learn the grammatical rules of one's native language during a critical period when one is young. Lexical semantics covers theories of the classification and decomposition of word meaning, the differences and similarities in lexical semantic structure between different languages, and the relationship of word meaning to sentence meaning and syntax. One question that lexical semantics explores is whether the meaning of a lexical unit is established by looking at its neighbourhood in the semantic net (by looking at the other words it occurs with in natural sentences), or if the meaning is already locally contained in the lexical unit. Another topic that is explored is the mapping of words to concepts. As tools, lexical relations (defined as patterns of association that exist between lexical items in a language) like synonymy, antonymy (opposites), hyponymy and hypernymy - and to a certain degree homonymy as well - are used in this field.
- (Levin & Hovav, 1998) ⇒ B Levin, and M. R. Hovav. (1998). “Morphology and Lexical Semantics. The Handbook of Morphology. A. Spencer and A. M. Zwicky. Oxford, Blackwell: 248-271.
- (Pustejovsky & Boguraev, 1996) ⇒ James Pustejovsky, and B. Boguraev, editorss/. (1996). “Lexical Semantics: The Problem of Polysemy.” Oxford University Press.
- (Cruse, 1986) ⇒ D. Alan Cruse. (1986). “Lexical Semantics." Cambridge University Press. ISBN:0521276438
- Lexical Semantics is about the meaning of words. Although obviously a central concern of linguistics, the semantic behaviour of words has been unduly neglected in the current literature, which has tended to emphasize sentential semantics and its relation to formal systems of logic. In this textbook D. Alan Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined way the descriptive and generalizable facts about lexical relations that any formal theory of semantics will have to encompass. Among the topics covered in depth are idiomaticity, lexical ambiguity, synonymy, hierarchical relations such as hyponymy and meronymy, and various types of oppositeness. Syntagmatic relations are also treated in some detail. The discussions are richly illustrated by examples drawn almost entirely from English. Although a familiarity with traditional grammar is assumed, readers with no technical linguistic background will find the exposition always accessible. All readers with an interest in semantics will find in this original text not only essential background but a stimulating new perspective on the field.
- Contents: Typographic conventions; Preface; 1. A contextual approach to lexical semantics; 2. The syntagmatic delimitation of lexical units; 3. The paradigmatic and syntactic delimitation of lexical units; 4. Introducing lexical relations; 5. Lexical configuration; 6. Taxonomies; 7. Meronomies; 8. Non-branching hierarchies; 9. Opposites I: complementaries and antonyms; 10. Opposites II: directional oppositions; 11. Opposites III: general questions; 12. Synonymy; References; Subject index; Author index.