Reasoning Task

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A Reasoning Task is an problem-solving task that accepts a reasoning query plus supporting evidence, and is then required to provide reasoned argument (that culminates in a conclusion or inference).



  • (Wikipedia, 2023) ⇒ Retrieved:2023-8-9.
    • Reason is the capacity of applying logic consciously by drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art, and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans. [1] Reason is sometimes referred to as rationality. [2] Reasoning is associated with the acts of thinking and cognition, and involves the use of one's intellect. The field of logic studies the ways in which humans can use formal reasoning to produce logically valid arguments. Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning, such as deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and abductive reasoning. Aristotle drew a distinction between logical discursive reasoning (reason proper), and intuitive reasoning, in which the reasoning process through intuition—however valid—may tend toward the personal and the subjectively opaque. In some social and political settings logical and intuitive modes of reasoning may clash, while in other contexts intuition and formal reason are seen as complementary rather than adversarial. For example, in mathematics, intuition is often necessary for the creative processes involved with arriving at a formal proof, arguably the most difficult of formal reasoning tasks. Reasoning, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking moves from one idea to a related idea. For example, reasoning is the means by which rational individuals understand sensory information from their environments, or conceptualize abstract dichotomies such as cause and effect, truth and falsehood, or ideas regarding notions of good or evil. Reasoning, as a part of executive decision making, is also closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change, in terms of goals, beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self-determination. [3] In contrast to the use of "reason" as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration given which either explains or justifies events, phenomena, or behavior.[4] Reasons justify decisions, reasons support explanations of natural phenomena; reasons can be given to explain the actions (conduct) of individuals. Using reason, or reasoning, can also be described more plainly as providing good, or the best, reasons. For example, when evaluating a moral decision, "morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one's conduct by reason—that is, doing what there are the best reasons for doing—while giving equal [and impartial] weight to the interests of all those affected by what one does." [5]

      Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.



    • The process by which a conclusion is inferred from multiple observations is called inductive reasoning. The conclusion may be correct or incorrect, or correct to within a certain degree of accuracy, or correct in certain situations. Conclusions inferred from multiple observations may be tested by additional observations.

      This definition is disputable (due to its lack of clarity. Ref: Oxford English dictionary: "induction ... 3. Logic the inference of a general law from particular instances.") The definition given thus applies only when the "conclusion" is general.

      1. A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.
      2. The process of reaching such a conclusion: "order, health, and by inference cleanliness".


    • Reason is a term that refers to the capacity human beings have to make sense of things, to establish and verify facts, and to change or justify practices, institutions, and beliefs. ...
  1. Compare:
  2. See, for example: * * * *
  3. Michel Foucault, "What is Enlightenment?" in The Essential Foucault, eds. Paul Rabinow and Nikolas Rose, New York: The New Press, 2003, 43–57. See also Nikolas Kompridis, "The Idea of a New Beginning: A Romantic Source of Normativity and Freedom," in Philosophical Romanticism, New York: Routledge, 2006, 32–59; "So We Need Something Else for Reason to Mean", International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8: 3, 271–295.
  4. Merriam-Webster Dictionary definition of reason
  5. Rachels, James. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, 4th ed. McGraw Hill, 2002


    • S: (n) reasoning, logical thinking, abstract thought (thinking that is coherent and logical)
    • S: (v) reason, reason out, conclude (decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion) "We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house"
    • S: (v) argue, reason (present reasons and arguments)
    • S: (v) reason (think logically) "The children must learn to reason"
    • S: (adj) intelligent, reasoning, thinking (endowed with the capacity to reason)
    • Noun
      • 1. Action of the verb to reason.
      • 2. The deduction of inferences or interpretations from premises; abstract thought; ratiocination.
    • Verb
      • 1. Present participle of reason.


  • (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒
    • Reasoning is the cognitive process of looking for reasons for beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. [1]
    • Humans have the ability to engage in reasoning about their own reasoning. Different forms of such reflection on reasoning occur in different fields. In philosophy, the study of reasoning typically focuses on what makes reasoning efficient or inefficient, appropriate or inappropriate, good or bad. Philosophers do this by either examining the form or structure of the reasoning within arguments, or by considering the broader methods used to reach particular goals of reasoning. Psychologists and cognitive scientists, in contrast, tend to study how people reason, which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, how cultural factors affect the inferences people draw. The properties of logics which may be used to reason are studied in mathematical logic. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may be modelled computationally. Lawyers also study reasoning.



    • Inference refers to the ability of a learning system, namely going from the "particular" (the examples) to the "general" (the predictive model). In the best of all worlds, we would not need to worry about model selection. Inference would be performed in a single step: we input training examples into a big black box containing all models, hyper-parameters, and parameters; outcomes the best possible trained model. In practice, we often use 2 levels of inference: we split the training data into a training set and a validation set. The training set serves the trains at the lower level (adjust the parameters of each model); the validation set serves to train at the higher level (select the model.) Nothing prevents us for using more than 2 levels. However, the price to pay will be to get smaller data sets to train with at each level.