- (Saussure, 1916) ⇒ Ferdinand de Saussure. (1916). “Cours de Linguistique Générale (Course in General Linguistics).” Open Court Publishing. ISBN:081269023
- (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_de_Saussure#Course_in_General_Linguistics
- Its central notion is that language may be analyzed as a formal system of differential elements, apart from the messy dialectics of real-time production and comprehension. Examples of these elements include the notion of the linguistic sign, the signifier, the signified, and the referent.
- (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Course_in_General_Linguistics
- Saussure focuses on what he calls language, that is "a system of signs that express ideas," and suggests that it may be divided into two components: langue, referring to the abstract system of language that is internalized by a given speech community, and parole, the individual acts of speech and the "putting into practice of language".
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