- (Wikipedia, 2018) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Society_and_Its_Enemies Retrieved:2018-8-28.
- The Open Society and Its Enemies is a work on political philosophy by the philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author presents a "defence of the open society against its enemies", and offers a critique of theories of teleological historicism, according to which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws. Popper indicts Plato, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and Karl Marx as totalitarian for relying on historicism to underpin their political philosophies, though his interpretations of all three philosophers have been criticized. Written during World War II, The Open Society and Its Enemies was published in 1945 in London by Routledge in two volumes: "The Spell of Plato" and "The High Tide of Prophecy: Hegel, Marx, and the Aftermath". A one-volume edition with a new introduction by Alan Ryan and an essay by E. H. Gombrich was published by Princeton University Press in 2013. The work was listed as one of the Modern Library Board's 100 Best Nonfiction books of the 20th century. 
- Modern Library, 1999. 100 Best Nonfiction
|1945 TheOpenSocietyandItsEnemies||Karl R. Popper (1902-1994)||The Open Society and Its Enemies (Vol 2)||1945|