1949 1984

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Subject Headings: Dystopian Novel, Political Fiction, The Animal Farm.


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  • (Wikipedia, 2016) ⇒ http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteen_Eighty-Four Retrieved:2016-2-22.
    • Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel by English author George Orwell published in 1949.[1] [2]

      The novel is set in Airstrip One (formerly known as Great Britain), a province of the superstate Oceania in a world of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and public manipulation, dictated by a political system euphemistically named English Socialism (or Ingsoc in the government's invented language, Newspeak) under the control of a privileged elite of the Inner Party, that persecutes individualism and independent thinking as “thoughtcrime." [3] The tyranny is epitomised by Big Brother, the Party leader who enjoys an intense cult of personality but who may not even exist. The Party "seeks power entirely for its own sake. It is not interested in the good of others; it is interested solely in power." [4] The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party, who works for the Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue in Newspeak), which is responsible for propaganda and historical revisionism. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles, so that the historical record always supports the party line.[5] The instructions that the workers receive specify the corrections as fixing misquotations and never as what they really are: forgeries and falsifications. A large part of the ministry also actively destroys all documents that have been edited and do not contain the revisions; in this way, no proof exists that the government is lying. Smith is a diligent and skillful worker but secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother. As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content, plot and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, doublethink, thoughtcrime, Newspeak, Room 101, telescreen, 2 + 2 = 5, and memory hole, have entered into common use since its publication in 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective Orwellian, which describes official deception, secret surveillance and manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state.[5] In 2005, the novel was chosen by TIME magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.[6] It was awarded a place on both lists of [[Modern Library 100 Best Novels]], reaching number 13 on the editor's list, and 6 on the readers' list. [7] In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the BBC's survey The Big Read. [8]

  • Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, Fourth Edition (1996). HarperCollins:New York. p. 734.
  • Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named aaron
  • The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, Columbia University Press: 1993, p. 2030.
  • "Nineteen Eighty-Four," pg 272.
  • 5.0 5.1 The Oxford Companion to English Literature, Sixth Edition. University of Oxford Press: 2000. p. 726.
  • Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (6 October 2005). "ALL-TIME 100 Novels. 1984 (1949), by George Orwell". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  • "100 Best Novels". Modern Library. Retrieved 19 October 2012
  • "BBC – The Big Read". BBC. April 2003, Retrieved 19 October 2012

  • Quotes



     AuthorvolumeDate ValuetitletypejournaltitleUrldoinoteyear
    1949 1984George Orwell (1903-1950)19841949