- (Hjørland, 2007) ⇒ Birger Hjørland. (2007). “Core Concepts in Library and Information Science (LIS)."
Subject Headings: Library and Information Science Discipline.
- Abstracts are both a kind of document representation (a form of semantic condensation or text summarization of a document) and a kind of documents (cf., document typology), which contains such document representations.
- As kinds of documents are abstracts forms of annotated bibliographies. They are typically current bibliographies, which provide short abstracts of the indexed documents. Synonymous terms are "Briefs", "Précis" and "Zentrallblätter". They are published in different media: Printed publications, on-line databases and CD-ROM databases.
- Abstracts come in different genres. A differentiation have been made between informative abstracts, which summarizes the main conclusions of a document and indicative abstracts only providing clues about the content of the paper (see Fedosyuk, 1978). Recently has a further development of the informative abstract become common among many journals: the structured abstract. Journal of Documentation, for example, demands: "Authors must supply a structured abstract set out under 4-6 sub-headings: Purpose; Methodology/Approach; Findings; Research limitations/implications (if applicable); Practical implications (if applicable) and, the Originality/value of paper. Maximum is 250 words in total." (Journal of Documentation, 2005). This new trend may be associated with the trend known as evidence based practice and thus be an indication of an epistemological influence on criteria for manuscript design.
- Another differentiation is between evaluative or critical abstracts on the one hand and non-evaluative abstracts on the other hand. Evaluative abstracts assess the methods, claims and results whereas non-evaluative abstracts just summarizes parts of the document.
- Today contain many scientific papers an author-produced abstracts. This has not always been the case, and the information profession has contributed to the propagation of this practice. Such author-abstracts are often reproduced without changes in abstract journals. It is a custom that abstracts written by other than the author are signed. Most journals, but not all journals, allow their abstracts to be re-used by abstracting services.
- An annotation is a critical, descriptive or explanatory note added to a text. The concept of annotation is mostly known in Library and Information Science (LIS) from annotated bibliographies, which contain summaries of the key points addressed in the sources, a description of the kind of sources or an evaluation of the source. (The opposite of an annotated bibliography is a naked bibliography).
- Barney (1991) is a book about annotations. Quote from the cover: "Where does a text stop, and a footnote begin? When is footnoting a critical activity? When is it a political activity? Is any text unannotatable..."
- A book may be defined in many different ways, including:
- a physical unit consisting of pages that are held together along one of the edges,
- a form of publication (see: Publications, forms of)
- a bibliographical unit (containing a certain minimum of pages as opposite to pamphlets),
- a statistical unit which may, for example, include sound books on tape.
- The book has had exceptional cultural influence.
- The history of the book is an established field of research with a main focus on the technical aspects of book production.
- A dictionary is a kind of document, which organizes information about words, for example, their etymology, meaning, translation, pronunciation etc.
- The study of dictionaries is termed lexicography.
- In theory and practice is a distinction usually made between dictionaries and encyclopedias. Dictionaries describes the use, function and definition of lexical units and concepts. They provide "linguistic information". Encyclopedias may also analyze concepts, but their main task is to describe classes of referents for those concepts. Encyclopedias concentrates on "real" information. Examinations of dictionaries and encyclopedias shows, however, that such principles are seldom consequently respected.
- A dissertation is a research paper written as a part of a formal education. Normally are refered to master's theses and doctoral dissertations. All are graduate theses. The generic term thesis may be used unless it is necessary to distinguish between master's and doctoral theses.
- Dissertations may or may not be published (in paper and/or electronically). They belong to the category of primary literature. A dissertation may be a monograph or it may be a series of published articles with a general summary.
- The Standard Book Numbering (SBN) system was implemented in Great Brittain in 1967. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee on Documentation (TC 46) set up a working party in 1967 to investigate the possibility of adapting the British SBN for international use. The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) was approved as an ISO standard in 1970 as ISO 2108. That original standard has been revised to accommodate to new forms of media, but the basic structure of the ISBN has not changed.
Library and Information Science
- LIS as a term is a combination of Library Science and Information Science. It is associated with schools of library and information science, which generally developed from professional schools to research based university institutions during the second half of the twenty century. In the last part of 1960s began schools of librarianship to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s and during the 1990s had almost all library schools in the USA added information science to their names. A similar development have taken place in large parts of the world. For example, in 1997 the ‘Royal School of Librarianship’ in Copenhagen changed its name in English to the ‘Royal School of Library and Information Science’.
- A patent is a document granting an inventor sole rights to an invention.
Preprint (& e-prints)
- A preprint is a portion of a work printed and distributed in advance of the publication date announced for the whole, for example, an article to be published in a periodical.
- By principle should a preprint not be confused with a draft or a manuscript, which have been submitted but not accepted for publication. In reality, things look somewhat differently. Various types of web-based archives are evolving rapidly. Preprint archives, e-print archives and open archives are terms used to describe several types of collections of electronic document. Preprint servers typically collect article-like documents which may or may not be later published in print journals. E-prints are sometimes preprints but may also include a variety of document types that may not be intended for print publication. E-prints are sometimes conceived as a form of electronic publishing.
- Proceedings are minutes: a written account of what transpired at a meeting. The most common form today is, however, that the Proceedings contains the paper presented at a conference, and is printed before the conference takes place and distributed to the participants at the start.
- A number of academic journals also use the term proceedings in their titles.
- Periodicals are publications which a published in units with no pre-established number of issues or ending data.
- Periodicals include journals, messages, negotiations and reports issued by associations and companies in addition to series of monographs, yearbooks, directories, newspapers etc.
- Multivolume encyclopedias are not defined as periodicals, because they are supposed to be finished sometime in the future.
- A textbook is a kind of document, which provides a systematic introduction to the fundamental principles or content of a subject intended for teaching a given target group.
- A thesaurus is a semantic tool used for information retrieval, query expansion and indexing, among other purposes. It is basically a selection of the basic vocabulary in a domain supplemented with information about synonyms, homonyms, generic terms, part/whole terms, “associative terms” and other information (e.g. frequency and history of terms in a given database).
|2007 CoreConceptsInLIS||Birger Hjørland||Core Concepts in Library and Information Science (LIS)||http://www.db.dk/bh/Core Concepts in LIS/home.htm||2007|