2015 GRaMScalingGraphComputationtoth

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Subject Headings: Graph Database Engine, GʀᴀM.

Notes

Cited By

2015

Quotes

Abstract

GʀᴀM is an efficient and scalable graph engine for a large class of widely used graph algorithms. It is designed to scale up to multicores on a single server, as well as scale out to multiple servers in a cluster, offering significant, often over an order-of-magnitude, improvement over existing distributed graph engines on evaluated graph algorithms. GʀᴀM is also capable of processing graphs that are significantly larger than previously reported. In particular, using 64 servers (1, 024 physical cores), it performs a PageRank iteration in 140 seconds on a synthetic graph with over one trillion edges, setting a new milestone for graph engines.

GʀᴀM's efficiency and scalability comes from a judicious architectural design that exploits the benefits of multi-core and RDMA. GʀᴀM uses a simple message-passing based scaling architecture for both scaling up and scaling out to expose inherent parallelism. It further benefits from a specially designed multi-core aware RDMA-based communication stack that preserves parallelism in a balanced way and allows overlapping of communication and computation. A high degree of parallelism often comes at the cost of lower efficiency due to resource fragmentation. GʀᴀM is equipped with an adaptive mechanism that evaluates the cost and benefit of parallelism to decide the appropriate configuration. Combined, these mechanisms allow GʀᴀM to scale up and out with high efficiency.

1. Introduction

Graph structures are prevalent and offer valuable information about relations and connections. For examples, social graphs help reveal the influence of each individual and the formation of communities. Distributed graph computation engines (e.g., Pregel [24], PowerGraph [13], GraphX [14], and PowerLyra [8]) have been proposed to mine insights from graphs through multiple iterations of vertex-centric computation and communication along the edges, with iterations often separated by barriers. Graph computation is particularly challenging to scale because graphs are notoriously hard to partition and small random accesses are dominant in such a workload. Yet, we are seeing the real needs to process increasingly large graphs on the order of hundreds of billions and even trillions of edges [10, 19]. Even with detailed performance studies [15] on the existing graph engines, there remains a lack of understanding on the scaling of such graph engines and its cost.

We present GRAM, a new graph engine that takes advantage of the modern hardware available in data centers, with multi-core servers, abundant memory in a cluster, and high-speed network with RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access) support [17]. GRAM’s design and implementation are further guided by a careful study on performance, scalability, and cost, with the following key design choices. First, GRAM adopts a deceivingly simple model for both scaling up and scaling out, where we affinitize a thread with each core, with threads (even within a server) communicating through message passing. We choose message passing over shared-memory primitives even for the intra-server case because our evaluation results (Section 5) reveal that, with sufficient batching, message passing exhibits better performance than shared-memory primitives due to better locality and fewer inter-core communications. This model fully exposes inherent hardware-level parallelism. The simplicity of the model makes it easy to understand any potential scalability bottleneck introduced by the software stack, while allowing an efficient implementation that scales.

Second, to scale out, GRAM incorporates a multicoreaware RDMA-based communication stack. The communication stack maximizes parallelism through fine-granularity message buffer pools to reduce interference among ...

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 AuthorvolumeDate ValuetitletypejournaltitleUrldoinoteyear
2015 GRaMScalingGraphComputationtothMing Wu
Fan Yang
Jilong Xue
Wencong Xiao
Youshan Miao
Lan Wei
Haoxiang Lin
Yafei Dai
Lidong Zhou
G Ra M: Scaling Graph Computation to the Trillions10.1145/2806777.28068492015
AuthorMing Wu +, Fan Yang +, Jilong Xue +, Wencong Xiao +, Youshan Miao +, Lan Wei +, Haoxiang Lin +, Yafei Dai + and Lidong Zhou +
doi10.1145/2806777.2806849 +
titleG Ra M: Scaling Graph Computation to the Trillions +
year2015 +