Apple Corporation

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An Apple Corporation is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services, and personal computers.



  • (Podolny & Hansen, 2020) ⇒ Joel M. Podolny, and Morten T. Hansen. (2020). “How Apple Is Organized for Innovation.” In: Harvard Business Review Journal.
    • QUOTE: ... When Jobs arrived back at Apple, it had a conventional structure for a company of its size and scope. It was divided into business units, each with its own P&L responsibilities. General managers ran the Macintosh products group, the information appliances division, and the server products division, among others. As is often the case with decentralized business units, managers were inclined to fight with one another, over transfer prices in particular. Believing that conventional management had stifled innovation, Jobs, in his first year returning as CEO, laid off the general managers of all the business units (in a single day), put the entire company under one P&L, and combined the disparate functional departments of the business units into one functional organization. …