Co-citation Relation

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A Co-citation Relation is a co-item relation between publications [math]\displaystyle{ C }[/math] that all cited some other publication [math]\displaystyle{ p }[/math].



    • Bibliographic coupling occurs when two works reference a common third work in their bibliographies. The coupling strength is higher the more citations the two bodies have in common, and this coupling is used to extrapolate how similar the subject matter of the two works is. Bibliographic coupling is not subjectively valuable in all fields of research since it helps the researcher to find related research done in the past. A closely-related notion is the co-citation index, which refers to the number of times two works are cited together in subsequent literature.[1]

      The term "bibliographic coupling" was first introduced by M. M. Kessler of MIT in a paper published in 1963,[2] and has been embraced in the work of the information scientist Eugene Garfield.[3] Others have questioned the usefulness of the concept, pointing out that the two works may reference completely unrelated subject matter in the third.

      Some examples of online sites that make use of bibliographic coupling include The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies and CiteSeer.IST

  1. Jeppe Nicolaisen, Co-citation, in Birger Hjørland, ed., Core Concepts in Library and Information Science
  2. "Bibliographic coupling between scientific papers," American Documentation 24 (1963), pp. 123-131.
  3. See for example "Multiple Independent Discovery and Creativity in Science," Current Contents, Nov. 3, 1980, pp. 5-10, reprinted in Essays of an Information Scientist, vol. 4 (1979-80), pp. 660-665.






  • (Tankard, Chang & Tsang, 1984) ⇒ James W. Tankard Jr., T. Chang, and K. Tsang (1984). “Citation Networks as Indicators of Journalism Research Activity." in: Journalism Quarterly, Spring.