# Ensemble Learning System

(Redirected from Ensemble Method)

An Ensemble Learning System is a supervised learning system that implements an ensemble learning algorithm to solve an ensemble learning task.

## References

### 2017B

• (Wikipedia, 2017) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_tree_learning#Decision_tree_types Retrieved:2017-10-15.
• QUOTE: Some techniques, often called ensemble methods, construct more than one decision tree:
• Boosted trees Incrementally building an ensemble by training each new instance to emphasize the training instances previously mis-modeled. A typical example is AdaBoost. These can be used for regression-type and classification-type problems. [1] [2]
• Bootstrap aggregated (or bagged) decision trees, an early ensemble method, builds multiple decision trees by repeatedly resampling training data with replacement, and voting the trees for a consensus prediction. [3]
• Rotation forest - in which every decision tree is trained by first applying principal component analysis (PCA) on a random subset of the input features. [4]

A special case of a decision tree is a decision list, which is a one-sided decision tree, so that every internal node has exactly 1 leaf node and exactly 1 internal node as a child (except for the bottommost node, whose only child is a single leaf node). While less expressive, decision lists are arguably easier to understand than general decision trees due to their added sparsity, permit non-greedy learning methods and monotonic constraints to be imposed.

Decision tree learning is the construction of a decision tree from class-labeled training tuples. A decision tree is a flow-chart-like structure, where each internal (non-leaf) node denotes a test on an attribute, each branch represents the outcome of a test, and each leaf (or terminal) node holds a class label. The topmost node in a tree is the root node.

There are many specific decision-tree algorithms. Notable ones include:

• ID3 (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) * C4.5 (successor of ID3)
• CART (Classification And Regression Tree)
• CHAID (CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector). Performs multi-level splits when computing classification trees.
• MARS: extends decision trees to handle numerical data better.
• Conditional Inference Trees. Statistics-based approach that uses non-parametric tests as splitting criteria, corrected for multiple testing to avoid overfitting. This approach results in unbiased predictor selection and does not require pruning.[5] [6]
• ID3 and CART were invented independently at around the same time (between 1970 and 1980), yet follow a similar approach for learning decision tree from training tuples.
1. Friedman, J. H. (1999). Stochastic gradient boosting. Stanford University.
2. Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., Friedman, J. H. (2001). The elements of statistical learning : Data mining, inference, and prediction. New York: Springer Verlag.
3. Breiman, L. (1996). Bagging Predictors. "Machine Learning, 24": pp. 123-140.
4. Rodriguez, J.J. and Kuncheva, L.I. and Alonso, C.J. (2006), Rotation forest: A new classifier ensemble method, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 28(10):1619-1630.
5. Hothorn, T.; Hornik, K.; Zeileis, A. (2006). “Unbiased Recursive Partitioning: A Conditional Inference Framework". Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 15 (3): 651–674. JSTOR 27594202. doi:10.1198/106186006X133933.
6. Strobl, C.; Malley, J.; Tutz, G. (2009). “An Introduction to Recursive Partitioning: Rationale, Application and Characteristics of Classification and Regression Trees, Bagging and Random Forests". Psychological Methods. 14 (4): 323–348. doi:10.1037/a0016973.