The line with the arrow-heads pointing in >--< is longer than the one where they point out <-->” (to a Müller-Lyer illusion task).
- a Human Choice.
- See: Psychology, Heuristics, Decision Making, Rational Choice Theory, Cognitive Bias, Amos Tversky.
- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuristics_in_judgment_and_decision_making Retrieved:2014-1-7.
In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions. They are mental shortcuts that usually involve focusing on one aspect of a complex problem and ignoring others.   These rules work well under most circumstances, but they can lead to systematic deviations from logic, probability or rational choice theory.Template:Cn The resulting errors are called “cognitive biases" and many different types have been documented. These have been shown to affect people's choices in situations like valuing a house or deciding the outcome of a legal case. Heuristics usually govern automatic, intuitive judgments but can also be used as deliberate mental strategies when working from limited information.
Cognitive scientist Herbert A. Simon originally proposed that human judgments are based on heuristics, taking the concept from the field of computation.[Note 1] In the early 1970s, psychologists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman demonstrated three heuristics that underlie a wide range of intuitive judgments. These findings set in motion the Heuristics and Biases research program, which studies how people make real-world judgments and the conditions under which those judgments are unreliable. This research challenged the idea that human beings are rational actors, but provided a theory of information processing to explain how people make estimates or choices. This research has guided almost all current theories of decision making.
Although a lot of research has focused on how heuristics lead to errors, they can be seen as rational in an underlying sense. According to this perspective, heuristics are good enough for most purposes without being too demanding on the brain's resources. Another theoretical perspective sees heuristics as fully rational in that they are rapid, can be made without full information and can be as accurate as more complicated procedures. By understanding the role of heuristics in human psychology, marketers and other persuaders can influence decisions, such as the prices people pay for goods or the quantity they buy.
- Lewis, Alan (17 April 2008). The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-521-85665-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=UKcG5H0zXwYC&pg=PA43. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Harris, Lori A. (21 May 2007). CliffsAP Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-470-19718-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=nIE6idG8jFgC&pg=PA65. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Nevid, Jeffrey S. (1 October 2008). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Cengage Learning. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-547-14814-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=LsVK0kSpzx8C&pg=PA251. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
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