PartOf Relation

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A PartOf Relation is a domain independent semantic relation that is a Strict Partial Order Relation between a Component Concept if a part of a Composite Concept.




  1. Varzi, Achille. 2003. "Mereology". In Edward N. Zalta, ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  2. Simons, Peter. 1987. Parts. A Study in Ontology. Oxford: Clarendon.
  3. Smith, Barry. 1998. The basic tools of formal ontology. In, Nicola Guarino, ed., Formal Ontology in Information Systems. IOS Pres


  • (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒
    • Meronymy (from Greek μέρος meros, "part" and ὄνομα onoma, "name") is a semantic relation specific to linguistics, distinct from the similar metonymy. A meronym denotes a constituent part of, or a member of something.[1]

      That is,

      "X" is a meronym of "Y" if Xs are parts of

      Y(s), or

      "X" is a meronym of "Y" if Xs are members of Y(s).

      For example, finger is a meronym of hand because a finger is part of a hand. Similarly, wheels is a meronym of automobile.

      Meronymy is the opposite of holonymy. A closely related concept is that of mereology, which specifically deals with part-whole relations and is used in logic. It is formally expressed in terms of first-order logic. A meronymy can also be considered a partial order.

      A meronym refers to a part of a whole. A word denoting a subset of what another word denotes is a hyponym. For example, a hyponym of tree is pine tree or oak tree ("a kind of tree"), but a meronym of tree is bark or leaf ("a part of a tree").

      In knowledge representation languages, meronymy is often expressed as "part-of".


  • (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒
    • QUOTE: Holonymy (in Greek holon = whole and onoma = name) is a semantic relation. Holonymy defines the relationship between a term denoting the whole and a term denoting a part of, or a member of, the whole. That is,
      • 'X' is a holonym of 'Y' if Ys are parts of Xs, or
      • 'X' is a holonym of 'Y' if Ys are members of Xs.
    • For example, 'tree' is a holonym of 'bark', of 'trunk' and of 'limb.'

      Holonymy is the opposite of meronymy.


  • (Girju et al., 2006) ⇒ R. Girju, A. Badulescu, and Dan Moldovan. (2006). “Automatic Discovery of Whole-Part Relations. Computational Linguistics, 32(1). (website)
    • QUOTE:This paper presents a supervised, semantically intensive, domain independent approach for the automatic detection of part-whole relations in text.