Software-based Computing System

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A software-based computing system is a computing system that is composed of computing hardware and software-based processes which can solve a software-based computing task.



    • An information system (IS)[1] - is any combination of information technology and people's activities that support operations, management and decision making.[2] In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.[3]

      Some make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, and business processes. Information systems typically include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes.[4]

      Alter argues for an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans and/or machines perform work using resources to produce specific products and/or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to processing (capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying) information.[5]

      As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can also be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.

      Information systems are the primary focus of study for the information systems discipline and for organizational informatics.[6]


    • A complete, working computer. Computer systems will include the computer along with any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function. Every computer system, for example, requires an operating system.



  • (Bell et al., 2006) ⇒ Gordon Bell, Jim Gray, and Alex Szalay. (2006). “Petascale Computational Systems: Balanced CyberInfrastructure in a Data-Centric World.” In: Computer, 39(1). doi:10.1109/MC.2006.29
    • QUOTE: Computational Science is a new branch of most disciplines. A thousand years ago, science was primarily empirical. Over the last 500 years each discipline has grown a theoretical component. Theoretical models often motivate experiments and generalize our understanding. Today most disciplines have both empirical and theoretical branches. In the last 50 years, most disciplines have grown a third, computational branch (e.g. empirical, theoretical and computational ecology, or physics, or linguistics). Computational Science has meant simulation. It grew out of our inability to find closed form solutions for complex mathematical models. Computers can simulate these complex models.


  1. "Definition of Application Landscape". Software Engineering for Business Information Systems (sebis). Jan 21, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  2. SEI Report, "Glossary"
  3. Kroenke, D M. (2008). Experiencing MIS. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ
  4. O'Brien, J A. (2003). Introduction to information systems: essentials for the e-business enterprise. McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA
  5. Alter, S. The Work System Method: Connecting People, Processes, and IT for Business Results. Works System Press, CA
  6. Beynon-Davies P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Palgrave, Basingstoke