Dialect

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A Dialect is a natural language that differs slightly from another parent language.



References

2017a

  • (Wikipedia, 2017) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialect Retrieved:2017-6-18.
    • The term dialect (from Latin , dialectus, dialectos, from the Ancient Greek word , διάλεκτος, diálektos, "discourse", from διά, diá, "through" and ,λέγω, légō , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:
      • One usage — the more common among linguists — refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. [1] Despite their differences, these varieties known as dialects are closely related and most often mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class or ethnicity. [2] A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed as ethnolect, and a regional dialect may be termed a regiolect. (...)
      • The other usage of the term "dialect", often deployed in colloquial or sociolinguistic settings, refers to a language that is socially subordinated to a regional or national standard language, often historically cognate or genetically related to the standard language, but not actually derived from the standard language. In other words, it is not an actual variety of the "standard language" or dominant language, but rather a separate, independently evolved but often distantly related language.[3] (...)
A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation (including prosody, or just prosody itself), the term accent may be preferred over dialect. Other types of speech varieties include jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins; and argots.

The particular speech patterns used by an individual are termed an idiolect.

  1. Oxford English dictionary.
  2. Merriam-Webster Online dictionary.
  3. Maiden, Martin & Mair Parry. 1997. The Dialects of Italy. London: Routledge, p. 2.

2017b

  • (Wiktionary, 2017) ⇒ https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dialect Retrieved:2017-6-18.
    • Etymology - From Middle French dialecte, from Latin dialectos, dialectus, from Ancient Greek διάλεκτος (diálektos, “conversation, the language of a country or a place or a nation, the local idiom which derives from a dominant language”), from διαλέγομαι (dialégomai, “I participate in a dialogue”), from διά (diá, “inter, through”) + λέγω (légō, “I speak”).

      Noun dialect (plural dialects):

  1. (linguistics) A variety of a language (specifically, often a spoken variety) that is characteristic of a particular area, community or group, often with relatively minor differences in vocabulary, style, spelling and pronunciation.
  2. A regional or minority language.
  3. (computing programming) A variant of a non-standardized programming language.