- See: Meaning (Linguistic), Interpreting, Writing, Idiom, Style Guide, Calque, Loanword.
- (Wikipedia, 2014) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation Retrieved:2014-10-24.
- Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.  Whereas interpreting undoubtedly antedates writing, translation began only after the appearance of written literature; there exist partial translations of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2000 BCE) into Southwest Asian languages of the second millennium BCE.  Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. On the other hand, spill-overs have imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched the target languages. Indeed, translators have helped substantially to shape the languages into which they have translated.  Due to the demands of business documentation consequent to the Industrial Revolution that began in the mid-18th century, some translation specialties have become formalized, with dedicated schools and professional associations.  Because of the laboriousness of translation, since the 1940s engineers have sought to automate translation (machine translation) or to mechanically aid the human translator (computer-assisted translation).  The rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated language localization.  Translation studies deal with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application of translation. 
- The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Namit Bhatia, ed., 1992, pp. 1,051–54.
- J.M. Cohen, "Translation", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, vol. 27, p. 12.
- Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil", The Polish Review, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, 1983, pp. 84-87.
- Andrew Wilson, Translators on Translating: Inside the Invisible Art, Vancouver, CCSP Press, 2009.
- W.J. Hutchins, Early Years in Machine Translation: Memoirs and Biographies of Pioneers, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, 2000.
- M. Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies: New Paradigms or Shifting Viewpoints?, Philadelphia, John Benjamins, 2006, p. 133.
- Susan Bassnett, Translation studies, pp. 13-37.