Legal Person

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A legal person is a human being who is also considered to be a sentient conscious agent by some legal code.



References

2015

  • (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_personality Retrieved:2015-7-6.
    • To have legal personality means to be capable of having legal rights and obligations[1] within a certain legal system, such as entering into contracts, suing, and being sued. Legal personality is a prerequisite to legal capacity, the ability of any legal person to amend (enter into, transfer, etc.) rights and obligations. In international law, consequently, legal personality is a prerequisite for an international organization to be able to sign international treaties in its own name. Legal persons (lat. persona iuris) are of two kinds: natural persons (also called physical persons) and juridical persons (also called juridic, juristic, artificial, or fictitious persons, lat. persona ficta) – groups of individuals, such as corporations, which are treated by law as if they are persons.[1] [2] [3] While human beings acquire legal personhood when they are born, juridical persons do so when they are incorporated in accordance with law.

2009

  • http://www.isi.edu/~hobbs/bgt-person.text
    • QUOTE:Finally we arrive at people. The theories of Part C are intended to some extent to apply to other kinds of agents than just people, such as robots and organizations, and some aspects of the cognitive theories, such as goals, plans, and beliefs, we would expect to find in any cognitive agent in some form. But many aspects are idiosyncratic to people -- accidents of evolution, in a sense. For example, there is probably no reason a robot or an organization should be thought of as having emotions. In Part C, when we are talking about aspects of cognition that apply to all cognitive agents, we will call the agent simply an "agent". When we are talking about particularities of people, we will condition the axioms on the relevant arguments being persons.
    • A person is a kind of agent.
      • (1) (forall (p) (if (person p)(agent p)))
    • A person is also a kind of physical object.
      • (2) (forall (p) (if (person p)(physobj p)))
    • A person has a body and a mind.
      • (3) (forall (p) (if (person p) (exists (b m)(and (body b p)(mind m p)))))

  1. 1.0 1.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named oxdic
  2. [...] men in law and philosophy are natural persons. This might be taken to imply there are persons of another sort. And that is a fact. They are artificial persons or corporations [...]
  3. Besides men or “natural persons,” law knows persons of another kind. In particular it knows the corporation, and for a multitude of purposes it treats the corporation very much as it treats the man. Like the man, the corporation is (forgive this compound adjective) a right-and-duty-bearing unit.