1880 TheBrothersKaramazov

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Subject Headings: Philosophical Novel, The Russian Messenger, A Gentle Creature, A Writer's Diary, The Grand Inquisitor.

Notes

Cited By

2016

  • (Wikipedia, 2016) ⇒ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Brothers_Karamazov Retrieved:2016-6-7.
    • The Brothers Karamazov ( Brat'ya Karamazovy, ), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Dostoyevsky spent nearly two years writing The Brothers Karamazov, which was published as a serial in The Russian Messenger from January 1879 to November 1880. The author died less than four months after its publication.

      The Brothers Karamazov is a passionate philosophical novel set in 19th century Russia, that enters deeply into the ethical debates of God, free will, and morality. It is a spiritual drama of moral struggles concerning faith, doubt, judgement, and reason, set against a modernizing Russia, with a plot which revolves around the subject of patricide. Dostoyevsky composed much of the novel in Staraya Russa, which inspired the main setting. Since its publication, it has been acclaimed as one of the supreme achievements in world literature.

Quotes

   Part I
   Book I. The History Of A Family
   Chapter I. Fyodor Pavlovitch Karamazov
   Chapter II. He Gets Rid Of His Eldest Son
   Chapter III. The Second Marriage And The Second Family
   Chapter IV. The Third Son, Alyosha
   Chapter V. Elders
   Book II. An Unfortunate Gathering
   Chapter I. They Arrive At The Monastery
   Chapter II. The Old Buffoon
   Chapter III. Peasant Women Who Have Faith
   Chapter IV. A Lady Of Little Faith
   Chapter V. So Be It! So Be It!
   Chapter VI. Why Is Such A Man Alive?
   Chapter VII. A Young Man Bent On A Career
   Chapter VIII. The Scandalous Scene
   Book III. The Sensualists
   Chapter I. In The Servants' Quarters
   Chapter II. Lizaveta
   Chapter III. The Confession Of A Passionate Heart — In Verse
   Chapter IV. The Confession Of A Passionate Heart — In Anecdote
   Chapter V. The Confession Of A Passionate Heart — "Heels Up"
   Chapter VI. Smerdyakov
   Chapter VII. The Controversy
   Chapter VIII. Over The Brandy
   Chapter IX. The Sensualists
   Chapter X. Both Together
   Chapter XI. Another Reputation Ruined
   Part II
   Book IV. Lacerations
   Chapter I. Father Ferapont
   Chapter II. At His Father's
   Chapter III. A Meeting With The Schoolboys
   Chapter IV. At The Hohlakovs'
   Chapter V. A Laceration In The Drawing-Room
   Chapter VI. A Laceration In The Cottage
   Chapter VII. And In The Open Air
   Book V. Pro And Contra
   Chapter I. The Engagement
   Chapter II. Smerdyakov With A Guitar
   Chapter III. The Brothers Make Friends
   Chapter IV. Rebellion
   Chapter V. The Grand Inquisitor
   Chapter VI. For Awhile A Very Obscure One
   Chapter VII. “It's Always Worth While Speaking To A Clever Man”
   Book VI. The Russian Monk
   Chapter I. Father Zossima And His Visitors
   Chapter II. The Duel
   Chapter III. Conversations And Exhortations Of Father Zossima
   Part III
   Book VII. Alyosha
   Chapter I. The Breath Of Corruption
   Chapter II. A Critical Moment
   Chapter III. An Onion
   Chapter IV. Cana Of Galilee
   Book VIII. Mitya
   Chapter I. Kuzma Samsonov
   Chapter II. Lyagavy
   Chapter III. Gold-Mines
   Chapter IV. In The Dark
   Chapter V. A Sudden Resolution
   Chapter VI. “I Am Coming, Too!”
   Chapter VII. The First And Rightful Lover
   Chapter VIII. Delirium
   Book IX. The Preliminary Investigation
   Chapter I. The Beginning Of Perhotin's Official Career
   Chapter II. The Alarm
   Chapter III. The Sufferings Of A Soul, The First Ordeal
   Chapter IV. The Second Ordeal
   Chapter V. The Third Ordeal
   Chapter VI. The Prosecutor Catches Mitya
   Chapter VII. Mitya's Great Secret. Received With Hisses
   Chapter VIII. The Evidence Of The Witnesses. The Babe
   Chapter IX. They Carry Mitya Away
   Part IV
   Book X. The Boys
   Chapter I. Kolya Krassotkin
   Chapter II. Children
   Chapter III. The Schoolboy
   Chapter IV. The Lost Dog
   Chapter V. By Ilusha's Bedside
   Chapter VI. Precocity
   Chapter VII. Ilusha
   Book XI. Ivan
   Chapter I. At Grushenka's
   Chapter II. The Injured Foot
   Chapter III. A Little Demon
   Chapter IV. A Hymn And A Secret
   Chapter V. Not You, Not You!
   Chapter VI. The First Interview With Smerdyakov
   Chapter VII. The Second Visit To Smerdyakov
   Chapter VIII. The Third And Last Interview With Smerdyakov
   Chapter IX. The Devil. Ivan's Nightmare
   Chapter X. “It Was He Who Said That”
   Book XII. A Judicial Error
   Chapter I. The Fatal Day
   Chapter II. Dangerous Witnesses
   Chapter III. The Medical Experts And A Pound Of Nuts
   Chapter IV. Fortune Smiles On Mitya
   Chapter V. A Sudden Catastrophe
   Chapter VI. The Prosecutor's Speech. Sketches Of Character
   Chapter VII. An Historical Survey
   Chapter VIII. A Treatise On Smerdyakov
   Chapter IX. The Galloping Troika. The End Of The Prosecutor's Speech.
   Chapter X. The Speech For The Defense. An Argument That Cuts Both Ways
   Chapter XI. There Was No Money. There Was No Robbery
   Chapter XII. And There Was No Murder Either
   Chapter XIII. A Corrupter Of Thought
   Chapter XIV. The Peasants Stand Firm
   Epilogue
   Chapter I. Plans For Mitya's Escape
   Chapter II. For A Moment The Lie Becomes Truth
   Chapter III. Ilusha's Funeral. The Speech At The Stone

Part I

Book I. The History Of A Family

Chapter I. Fyodor Pavlovitch Karamazov

Chapter II. He Gets Rid Of His Eldest Son

Chapter III. The Second Marriage And The Second Family

Chapter IV. The Third Son, Alyosha

Chapter V. Elders

Book II. An Unfortunate Gathering

Chapter I. They Arrive At The Monastery

Chapter II. The Old Buffoon

Chapter III. Peasant Women Who Have Faith

Chapter IV. A Lady Of Little Faith

Chapter V. So Be It! So Be It!

Chapter VI. Why Is Such A Man Alive?

Chapter VII. A Young Man Bent On A Career

Chapter VIII. The Scandalous Scene

Book III. The Sensualists

Chapter I. In The Servants' Quarters

Chapter II. Lizaveta

Chapter III. The Confession Of A Passionate Heart — In Verse

Chapter IV. The Confession Of A Passionate Heart — In Anecdote

Chapter V. The Confession Of A Passionate Heart — "Heels Up"

Chapter VI. Smerdyakov

Chapter VII. The Controversy

Chapter VIII. Over The Brandy

Chapter IX. The Sensualists

Chapter X. Both Together

Chapter XI. Another Reputation Ruined

Part II

Book IV. Lacerations

Chapter I. Father Ferapont

Chapter II. At His Father's

Chapter III. A Meeting With The Schoolboys

Chapter IV. At The Hohlakovs'

Chapter V. A Laceration In The Drawing-Room

Chapter VI. A Laceration In The Cottage

Chapter VII. And In The Open Air

Book V. Pro And Contra

Chapter I. The Engagement

Chapter II. Smerdyakov With A Guitar

Chapter III. The Brothers Make Friends

...

“No, brother, we had better not drink,” said Alyosha suddenly. “Besides I feel somehow depressed.”

“Yes, you've been depressed a long time, I've noticed it.”

“Have you settled to go to-morrow morning, then?”

“Morning? I didn't say I should go in the morning.... But perhaps it may be the morning. Would you believe it, I dined here to-day only to avoid dining with the old man, I loathe him so. I should have left long ago, so far as he is concerned. But why are you so worried about my going away? We've plenty of time before I go, an eternity!”

“If you are going away to-morrow, what do you mean by an eternity?”

“But what does it matter to us?” laughed Ivan. “We've time enough for our talk, for what brought us here. Why do you look so surprised? Answer: why have we met here? To talk of my love for Katerina Ivanovna, of the old man and Dmitri? of foreign travel? of the fatal position of Russia? Of the Emperor Napoleon? Is that it?”

“No.”

[pg 256]

“Then you know what for. It's different for other people; but we in our green youth have to settle the eternal questions first of all. That's what we care about. Young Russia is talking about nothing but the eternal questions now. Just when the old folks are all taken up with practical questions. Why have you been looking at me in expectation for the last three months? To ask me, ‘What do you believe, or don't you believe at all?’ That's what your eyes have been meaning for these three months, haven't they?”

“Perhaps so,” smiled Alyosha. “You are not laughing at me, now, Ivan?”

“Me laughing! I don't want to wound my little brother who has been watching me with such expectation for three months. Alyosha, look straight at me! Of course I am just such a little boy as you are, only not a novice. And what have Russian boys been doing up till now, some of them, I mean? In this stinking tavern, for instance, here, they meet and sit down in a corner. They've never met in their lives before and, when they go out of the tavern, they won't meet again for forty years. And what do they talk about in that momentary halt in the tavern? Of the eternal questions, of the existence of God and immortality. And those who do not believe in God talk of socialism or anarchism, of the transformation of all humanity on a new pattern, so that it all comes to the same, they're the same questions turned inside out. And masses, masses of the most original Russian boys do nothing but talk of the eternal questions! Isn't it so?”

“Yes, for real Russians the questions of God's existence and of immortality, or, as you say, the same questions turned inside out, come first and foremost, of course, and so they should,” said Alyosha, still watching his brother with the same gentle and inquiring smile.

“Well, Alyosha, it's sometimes very unwise to be a Russian at all, but anything stupider than the way Russian boys spend their time one can hardly imagine. But there's one Russian boy called Alyosha I am awfully fond of.”

“How nicely you put that in!” Alyosha laughed suddenly.

“Well, tell me where to begin, give your orders. The existence of God, eh?”

“Begin where you like. You declared yesterday at father's that there was no God.” Alyosha looked searchingly at his brother.

[pg 257]

“I said that yesterday at dinner on purpose to tease you and I saw your eyes glow. But now I've no objection to discussing with you, and I say so very seriously. I want to be friends with you, Alyosha, for I have no friends and want to try it. Well, only fancy, perhaps I too accept God,” laughed Ivan; “that's a surprise for you, isn't it?”

“Yes, of course, if you are not joking now.”

[pg 258]

“Joking? I was told at the elder's yesterday that I was joking. You know, dear boy, there was an old sinner in the eighteenth century who declared that, if there were no God, he would have to be invented. S'il n'existait pas Dieu, il faudrait l'inventer. And man has actually invented God. And what's strange, what would be marvelous, is not that God should really exist; the marvel is that such an idea, the idea of the necessity of God, could enter the head of such a savage, vicious beast as man. So holy it is, so touching, so wise and so great a credit it does to man. As for me, I've long resolved not to think whether man created God or God man. And I won't go through all the axioms laid down by Russian boys on that subject, all derived from European hypotheses; for what's a hypothesis there, is an axiom with the Russian boy, and not only with the boys but with their teachers too, for our Russian professors are often just the same boys themselves. And so I omit all the hypotheses. For what are we aiming at now? I am trying to explain as quickly as possible my essential nature, that is what manner of man I am, what I believe in, and for what I hope, that's it, isn't it? And therefore I tell you that I accept God simply. But you must note this: if God exists and if He really did create the world, then, as we all know, He created it according to the geometry of Euclid and the human mind with the conception of only three dimensions in space. Yet there have been and still are geometricians and philosophers, and even some of the most distinguished, who doubt whether the whole universe, or to speak more widely the whole of being, was only created in Euclid's geometry; they even dare to dream that two parallel lines, which according to Euclid can never meet on earth, may meet somewhere in infinity. I have come to the conclusion that, since I can't understand even that, I can't expect to understand about God. I acknowledge humbly that I have no faculty for settling such questions, I have a Euclidian earthly mind, and how could I solve problems that are not of this world? And I advise you never to think about it either, my dear Alyosha, especially about God, whether He exists or not. All such questions are utterly inappropriate for a mind created with an idea of only three dimensions. And so I accept God and am glad to, and what's more, I accept His wisdom, His purpose — which are utterly beyond our ken; I believe in the underlying order and the meaning of life; I believe in the eternal harmony in which they say we shall one day be blended. I believe in the Word to Which the universe is striving, and Which Itself was ‘with God,’ and Which Itself is God and so on, and so on, to infinity. There are all sorts of phrases for it. I seem to be on the right path, don't I? Yet would you believe it, in the final result I don't accept this world of God's, and, although I know it exists, I don't accept it at all. It's not that I don't accept God, you must understand, it's the world created by Him I don't and cannot accept. Let me make it plain. I believe like a child that suffering will be healed and made up for, that all the humiliating absurdity of human contradictions will vanish like a pitiful mirage, like the despicable fabrication of the impotent and infinitely small Euclidian mind of man, that in the world's finale, at the moment of eternal harmony, something so precious will come to pass that it will suffice for all hearts, for the comforting of all resentments, for the atonement of all the crimes of humanity, of all the blood they've shed; that it will make it not only possible to forgive but to justify all that has happened with men — but though all that may come to pass, I don't accept it. I won't accept it. Even if parallel lines do meet and I see it myself, I shall see it and say that they've met, but still I won't accept it. That's what's at the root of me, Alyosha; that's my creed. I am in earnest in what I say. I began our talk as stupidly as I could on purpose, but I've led up to my confession, for that's all you want. You didn't want to hear about God, but only to know what the brother you love lives by. And so I've told you.”

Ivan concluded his long tirade with marked and unexpected feeling.

...

Chapter IV. Rebellion

...

“My poem is called ‘The Grand Inquisitor’; it's a ridiculous thing, but I want to tell it to you.”

Chapter V. The Grand Inquisitor

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28054/28054-h/28054-h.html#toc85

... You see, my action takes place in the sixteenth century, and at that time, as you probably learnt at school, it was customary in poetry to bring down heavenly powers on earth. ...

...

My story is laid in Spain, in Seville, in the most terrible time of the Inquisition, when fires were lighted every day to the glory of God, and ‘in the splendid auto da fé the wicked heretics were burnt.’ Oh, of course, this was not the coming in which He will appear according to His promise at the end of time in all His heavenly glory, and which will be sudden ‘as lightning flashing from east to west.’ No, He visited His children only for a moment, and there where the flames were crackling round the heretics. [pg 273] In His infinite mercy He came once more among men in that human shape in which He walked among men for three years fifteen centuries ago. He came down to the ‘hot pavements’ of the southern town in which on the day before almost a hundred heretics had, ad majorem gloriam Dei, been burnt by the cardinal, the Grand Inquisitor, in a magnificent auto da fé, in the presence of the king, the court, the knights, the cardinals, the most charming ladies of the court, and the whole population of Seville.

“He came softly, unobserved, and yet, strange to say, every one recognized Him. ...

...

[pg 274]

“There are cries, sobs, confusion among the people, and at that moment the cardinal himself, the Grand Inquisitor, passes by the cathedral. He is an old man, almost ninety, tall and erect, with a withered face and sunken eyes, in which there is still a gleam of light. He is not dressed in his gorgeous cardinal's robes, as he was the day before, when he was burning the enemies of the Roman Church ...

...

“ ‘Is it Thou? Thou?’ but receiving no answer, he adds at once, ‘Don't answer, be silent. What canst Thou say, indeed? I know too well what Thou wouldst say. And Thou hast no right to add anything to what Thou hadst said of old. Why, then, art Thou come to hinder us? For Thou hast come to hinder us, and Thou knowest that. But dost Thou know what will be to-morrow? I know not who Thou art and care not to know whether it is Thou or only a semblance of Him, but to-morrow I shall condemn Thee and burn Thee at the stake as the worst of heretics. And the very people who have to-day kissed Thy feet, to-morrow at the faintest sign from me will rush to heap up the embers of Thy fire. Knowest Thou that? Yes, maybe Thou knowest it,’ he added with thoughtful penetration, never for a moment taking his eyes off the Prisoner.”

[pg 275]

...

“I don't understand again,” Alyosha broke in. “Is he ironical, is he jesting?”

“Not a bit of it! He claims it as a merit for himself and his Church that at last they have vanquished freedom and have done so to make men happy. ‘For now’ (he is speaking of the Inquisition, of course) ‘for the first time it has become possible to think of the happiness of men. Man was created a rebel; and how can rebels be happy? Thou wast warned,’ he says to Him. ‘Thou hast had no lack of admonitions and warnings, but Thou didst not listen to those warnings; Thou didst reject the only way by which men might be made happy. But, fortunately, departing Thou didst hand on the work to us. Thou hast promised, Thou hast established by Thy word, Thou hast given to us the right to bind and to unbind, and now, of course, Thou canst not think of taking it away. Why, then, hast Thou come to hinder us?’ ”

“And what's the meaning of ‘no lack of admonitions and warnings’?” asked Alyosha.

“Why, that's the chief part of what the old man must say.

[pg 277]

“ ‘The wise and dread spirit, the spirit of self-destruction and non-existence,’ the old man goes on, ‘the great spirit talked with Thee in the wilderness, and we are told in the books that he “tempted” Thee. Is that so? And could anything truer be said than what he revealed to Thee in three questions and what Thou didst reject, and what in the books is called “the temptation”? And yet if there has ever been on earth a real stupendous miracle, it took place on that day, on the day of the three temptations. The statement of those three questions was itself the miracle. If it were possible to imagine simply for the sake of argument that those three questions of the dread spirit had perished utterly from the books, and that we had to restore them and to invent them anew, and to do so had gathered together all the wise men of the earth — rulers, chief priests, learned men, philosophers, poets — and had set them the task to invent three questions, such as would not only fit the occasion, but express in three words, three human phrases, the whole future history of the world and of humanity — dost Thou believe that all the wisdom of the earth united could have invented anything in depth and force equal to the three questions which were actually put to Thee then by the wise and mighty spirit in the wilderness? From those questions alone, from the miracle of their statement, we can see that we have here to do not with the fleeting human intelligence, but with the absolute and eternal. For in those three questions the whole subsequent history of mankind is, as it were, brought together into one whole, and foretold, and in them are united all the unsolved historical contradictions of human nature. At the time it could not be so clear, since the future was unknown; but now that fifteen hundred years have passed, we see that everything in those three questions was so justly divined and foretold, and has been so truly fulfilled, that nothing can be added to them or taken from them.

...

[pg 280]

“ ‘This is the significance of the first question in the wilderness, and this is what Thou hast rejected for the sake of that freedom which Thou hast exalted above everything. Yet in this question lies hid the great secret of this world. Choosing “bread,” Thou wouldst have satisfied the universal and everlasting craving of humanity — to find some one to worship. So long as man remains free he strives for nothing so incessantly and so painfully as to find some one to worship. But man seeks to worship what is established beyond dispute, so that all men would agree at once to worship it. For these pitiful creatures are concerned not only to find what one or the other can worship, but to find something that all would believe in and worship; what is essential is that all may be together in it. This craving for community of worship is the chief misery of every man individually and of all humanity from the beginning of time. For the sake of common worship they've slain each other with the sword. They have set up gods and challenged one another, “Put away your gods and come and worship ours, or we will kill you and your gods!” And so it will be to the end of the world, even when gods disappear from the earth; they will fall down before idols just the same. Thou didst know, Thou couldst not but have known, this fundamental secret of human nature, but Thou didst reject the one infallible banner which was offered Thee to make all men bow down to Thee alone — the banner of earthly bread; and Thou hast rejected it for the sake of freedom and the bread of Heaven. Behold what Thou didst further. And all again in the name of freedom! I tell Thee that man is tormented by no greater anxiety than to find some one quickly to whom he can hand over that gift of freedom with which the ill-fated creature is born. But only one who can appease their conscience can take over their freedom. In bread there was offered Thee an invincible banner; give bread, and man will worship thee, for nothing is more certain than bread. But if some one else gains possession of his conscience — oh! then he will cast away Thy bread and follow after him who has ensnared his conscience. In that Thou wast right. For the secret of man's being is not only to live but to have something to live for. Without a stable conception of the object of life, man would not consent to go on living, and would rather destroy himself than remain on earth, though he had bread in abundance. That is true. But what happened? Instead of taking men's freedom from them, Thou didst make it greater than ever! Didst Thou forget that man prefers peace, and even death, to freedom of choice in the knowledge of good and evil? Nothing is more seductive for man than his freedom of conscience, but nothing is a greater cause of suffering. And behold, instead of giving a firm foundation for setting the conscience of man at rest for ever, Thou didst choose all that is exceptional, vague and enigmatic; Thou didst choose what was utterly beyond the strength of men, acting as though Thou didst not love them at all — Thou who didst come to give Thy life for them! Instead of taking possession of men's freedom, Thou didst increase it, and burdened the spiritual kingdom of mankind with its sufferings for ever. Thou didst desire man's free love, that he should follow Thee freely, enticed and taken captive by Thee. In place of the rigid ancient law, man must hereafter with free heart decide for himself what is good and what is evil, having only Thy image before him as his guide. But didst Thou not know that he would at last reject even Thy image and Thy truth, if he is weighed down with the fearful burden of free choice? They will cry aloud at last that the truth is not in Thee, for they could not have been left in greater confusion and suffering than Thou hast caused, laying upon them so many cares and unanswerable problems.

...

[pg 281]

“ ‘So that, in truth, Thou didst Thyself lay the foundation for the destruction of Thy kingdom, and no one is more to blame for it. Yet what was offered Thee? There are three powers, three powers alone, able to conquer and to hold captive for ever the conscience of these impotent rebels for their happiness — those forces are miracle, mystery and authority. Thou hast rejected all three and hast set the example for doing so. When the wise and dread spirit set Thee on the pinnacle of the temple and said to Thee, “If Thou wouldst know whether Thou art the Son of God then cast Thyself down, for it is written: the angels shall hold him up lest he fall and bruise himself, and Thou shalt know then whether Thou art the Son of God and shalt prove then how great is Thy faith in Thy Father.” But Thou didst refuse and wouldst not cast Thyself down. Oh, of course, Thou didst proudly and well, like God; but the weak, unruly race of men, are they gods? Oh, Thou didst know then that in taking one step, in making one movement to cast Thyself down, Thou wouldst be tempting God and have lost all Thy faith in Him, and wouldst have been dashed to pieces against that earth which Thou didst come to save. And the wise spirit that tempted Thee would have rejoiced. But I ask again, are there many like Thee? And couldst Thou believe for one moment that men, too, could face such a temptation? Is the nature of men such, that they can reject miracle, and at the great moments of their life, the moments of their deepest, most agonizing spiritual difficulties, cling only to the free verdict of the heart? Oh, Thou didst know that Thy deed would be recorded in books, would be handed down to remote times and the utmost ends of the earth, and Thou didst hope that man, following Thee, would cling to God and not ask for a miracle. But Thou didst not know that when man rejects miracle he rejects God too; for man seeks not so much God as the miraculous. And as man cannot bear to be without the miraculous, he will create new miracles of his own for himself, and will worship deeds of sorcery and witchcraft, though he might be a hundred times over a rebel, heretic and infidel. Thou didst not come down from the Cross when they shouted to Thee, mocking and reviling Thee, “Come down from the cross and we will believe that Thou art He.” Thou didst not come down, for again Thou wouldst not enslave man by a miracle, and didst crave faith given freely, not based on miracle. Thou didst crave for free love and not the base raptures of the slave before the might that has overawed him for ever. But Thou didst think too highly of men therein, for they are slaves, of course, though rebellious by nature. Look round and judge; fifteen centuries have passed, look upon them. Whom hast Thou raised up to Thyself? I swear, man is weaker and baser by nature than Thou hast believed him! Can he, can he do what Thou didst? By showing him so much respect, Thou didst, as it were, cease to feel for him, for Thou didst ask far too much from him — Thou who hast loved him more than Thyself! Respecting him less, Thou wouldst have asked less of him. That would have been more like love, for his burden would have been lighter. He is weak and vile. What though he is everywhere now rebelling against our power, and proud of his rebellion? It is the pride of a child and a schoolboy. They are little children rioting and barring out the teacher at school. But their childish delight will end; it will cost them dear. They will cast down temples and drench the earth with blood. But they will see at last, the foolish children, that, though they are rebels, they are impotent rebels, unable to keep up their own rebellion. Bathed in their foolish tears, they will recognize at last that He who created them rebels must have meant to mock at them. They will say this in despair, and their utterance will be a blasphemy which will make them more unhappy still, for man's nature cannot bear blasphemy, and in the end always avenges it on itself. And so unrest, confusion and unhappiness — that is the present lot of man after Thou didst bear so much for their freedom! The great prophet tells in vision and in image, that he saw all those who took part in the first resurrection and that there were of each tribe twelve thousand. But if there were so many of them, they must have been not men but gods. They had borne Thy cross, they had endured scores of years in the barren, hungry wilderness, living upon locusts and roots — and Thou mayest indeed point with pride at those children of freedom, of free love, of free and splendid sacrifice for Thy name. But remember that they were only some thousands; and what of the rest? And how are the other weak ones to blame, because they could not endure what the strong have endured? How is the weak soul to blame that it is unable to receive such terrible gifts? Canst Thou have simply come to the elect and for the elect? But if so, it is a mystery and we cannot understand it. And if it is a mystery, we too have a right to preach a mystery, and to teach them that it's not the free judgment of their hearts, not love that matters, but a mystery which they must follow blindly, even against their conscience. So we have done. We have corrected Thy work and have founded it upon miracle, mystery and authority. And men rejoiced that they were again led like sheep, and that the terrible gift that had brought them such suffering was, at last, lifted from their hearts. Were we right teaching them this? Speak! Did we not love mankind, so meekly acknowledging their feebleness, lovingly lightening their burden, and permitting their weak nature even sin with our sanction? Why hast Thou come now to hinder us? And why dost Thou look silently and searchingly at me with Thy mild eyes? Be angry. I [pg 283] don't want Thy love, for I love Thee not. And what use is it for me to hide anything from Thee? Don't I know to Whom I am speaking? All that I can say is known to Thee already. And is it for me to conceal from Thee our mystery? Perhaps it is Thy will to hear it from my lips. Listen, then. We are not working with Thee, but with him — that is our mystery. It's long — eight centuries — since we have been on his side and not on Thine. Just eight centuries ago, we took from him what Thou didst reject with scorn, that last gift he offered Thee, showing Thee all the kingdoms of the earth. We took from him Rome and the sword of Cæsar, and proclaimed ourselves sole rulers of the earth, though hitherto we have not been able to complete our work. But whose fault is that? Oh, the work is only beginning, but it has begun. It has long to await completion and the earth has yet much to suffer, but we shall triumph and shall be Cæsars, and then we shall plan the universal happiness of man. But Thou mightest have taken even then the sword of Cæsar. Why didst Thou reject that last gift? Hadst Thou accepted that last counsel of the mighty spirit, Thou wouldst have accomplished all that man seeks on earth — that is, some one to worship, some one to keep his conscience, and some means of uniting all in one unanimous and harmonious ant-heap, for the craving for universal unity is the third and last anguish of men. Mankind as a whole has always striven to organize a universal state. There have been many great nations with great histories, but the more highly they were developed the more unhappy they were, for they felt more acutely than other people the craving for world-wide union. The great conquerors, Timours and Ghenghis-Khans, whirled like hurricanes over the face of the earth striving to subdue its people, and they too were but the unconscious expression of the same craving for universal unity. Hadst Thou taken the world and Cæsar's purple, Thou wouldst have founded the universal state and have given universal peace. For who can rule men if not he who holds their conscience and their bread in his hands? We have taken the sword of Cæsar, and in taking it, of course, have rejected Thee and followed him. Oh, ages are yet to come of the confusion of free thought, of their science and cannibalism. For having begun to build their tower of Babel without us, they will end, of course, with cannibalism. But then the beast will crawl to us and lick our [pg 284] feet and spatter them with tears of blood. And we shall sit upon the beast and raise the cup, and on it will be written, “Mystery.” But then, and only then, the reign of peace and happiness will come for men. Thou art proud of Thine elect, but Thou hast only the elect, while we give rest to all. And besides, how many of those elect, those mighty ones who could become elect, have grown weary waiting for Thee, and have transferred and will transfer the powers of their spirit and the warmth of their heart to the other camp, and end by raising their free banner against Thee. Thou didst Thyself lift up that banner. But with us all will be happy and will no more rebel nor destroy one another as under Thy freedom. Oh, we shall persuade them that they will only become free when they renounce their freedom to us and submit to us. And shall we be right or shall we be lying? They will be convinced that we are right, for they will remember the horrors of slavery and confusion to which Thy freedom brought them. Freedom, free thought and science, will lead them into such straits and will bring them face to face with such marvels and insoluble mysteries, that some of them, the fierce and rebellious, will destroy themselves, others, rebellious but weak, will destroy one another, while the rest, weak and unhappy, will crawl fawning to our feet and whine to us: “Yes, you were right, you alone possess His mystery, and we come back to you, save us from ourselves!”

[pg 282]

[pg 285]

“ ‘Receiving bread from us, they will see clearly that we take the bread made by their hands from them, to give it to them, without any miracle. They will see that we do not change the stones to bread, but in truth they will be more thankful for taking it from our hands than for the bread itself! For they will remember only too well that in old days, without our help, even the bread they made turned to stones in their hands, while since they have come back to us, the very stones have turned to bread in their hands. Too, too well will they know the value of complete submission! And until men know that, they will be unhappy. Who is most to blame for their not knowing it? — speak! Who scattered the flock and sent it astray on unknown paths? But the flock will come together again and will submit once more, and then it will be once for all. Then we shall give them the quiet humble happiness of weak creatures such as they are by nature. Oh, we shall persuade them at last not to be proud, for Thou didst lift them up and thereby taught them to be proud. We shall show them that they are weak, that they are only pitiful children, but that childlike happiness is the sweetest of all. They will become timid and will look to us and huddle close to us in fear, as chicks to the hen. They will marvel at us and will be awe-stricken before us, and will be proud at our being so powerful and clever, that we have been able to subdue such a turbulent flock of thousands of millions. They will tremble impotently before our wrath, their minds will grow fearful, they will be quick to shed tears like women and children, but they will be just as ready at a sign from us to pass to laughter and rejoicing, to happy mirth and childish song. Yes, we shall set them to work, but in their leisure hours we shall make their life like a child's game, with children's songs and innocent dance. Oh, we shall allow them even sin, they are weak and helpless, and they will love us like children because we allow them to sin. We shall tell them that every sin will be expiated, if it is done with our permission, that we allow them to sin because we love them, and the punishment for these sins we take upon ourselves. And we shall take it upon ourselves, and they will adore us as their saviors who have taken on themselves their sins before God. And they will have no secrets from us. We shall allow or forbid them to live with their wives and mistresses, to have or not to have children — according to whether they have been obedient or disobedient — and they will submit to us gladly and cheerfully. The most painful secrets of their conscience, all, all they will bring to us, and we shall have an answer for all. And they will be glad to believe our answer, for it will save them from the great anxiety and terrible agony they endure at present in making a free decision for themselves. And all will be happy, all the millions of creatures except the hundred thousand who rule over them. For only we, we who guard the mystery, shall be unhappy. There will be thousands of millions of happy babes, and a hundred thousand sufferers who have taken upon themselves the curse of the knowledge of good and evil. Peacefully they will die, peacefully they will expire in Thy name, and beyond the grave they will find nothing but death. But we shall keep the secret, and for their happiness we shall allure them with the reward of heaven and eternity. Though if there were anything in the other world, it certainly would not be for such as they. It is prophesied that Thou wilt come again in victory, Thou wilt come with Thy chosen, the proud and strong, but we will say that they have only saved themselves, but we have saved all. We are told that the harlot who sits upon the beast, and holds in her hands the mystery, shall be put to shame, that the weak will rise up again, and will rend her royal purple and will strip naked her loathsome body. But then I will stand up and point out to Thee the thousand millions of happy children who have known no sin. And we who have taken their sins upon us for their happiness will stand up before Thee and say: “Judge us if Thou canst and darest.” Know that I fear Thee not. Know that I too have been in the wilderness, I too have lived on roots and locusts, I too prized the freedom with which Thou hast blessed men, and I too was striving to stand among Thy elect, among the strong and powerful, thirsting “to make up the number.” But I awakened and would not serve madness. I turned back and joined the ranks of those who have corrected Thy work. I left the proud and went back to the humble, for the happiness of the humble. What I say to Thee will come to pass, and our dominion will be built up. I repeat, to-morrow Thou shalt see that obedient flock who at a sign from me will hasten to heap up the hot cinders about the pile on which I shall burn Thee for coming to hinder us. For if any one has ever deserved our fires, it is Thou. To-morrow I shall burn Thee. Dixi.’ ”

[pg 286]

Ivan stopped. He was carried away as he talked, and spoke with excitement; when he had finished, he suddenly smiled.

...

Chapter VI. For Awhile A Very Obscure One

Chapter VII. “It's Always Worth While Speaking To A Clever Man”

Book VI. The Russian Monk

Chapter I. Father Zossima And His Visitors

Chapter II. The Duel

Chapter III. Conversations And Exhortations Of Father Zossima

...

[pg 348]

...

They have science; but in science there is nothing but what is the object of sense. The spiritual world, the higher part of man's being is rejected altogether, dismissed with a sort of triumph, even with hatred. The world has proclaimed the reign of freedom, especially of late, but what do we see in this freedom of theirs? Nothing but slavery and self-destruction! For the world says:

“You have desires and so satisfy them, for you have the same rights as the most rich and powerful. Don't be afraid of satisfying them and even multiply your desires.” That is the modern doctrine of the world. In that they see freedom. And what follows from this right of multiplication of desires? In the rich, isolation and spiritual suicide; in the poor, envy and murder; for they have been given rights, but have not been shown the means of satisfying their wants. They maintain that the world is getting more and more united, more and more bound together in brotherly community, as it overcomes distance and sets thoughts flying through the air.

Alas, put no faith in such a bond of union. Interpreting freedom as the multiplication and rapid satisfaction of desires, men distort their own nature, for many senseless and foolish desires and habits and ridiculous fancies are fostered in them. They live only for mutual envy, for luxury and ostentation. To have dinners, visits, carriages, rank and slaves to wait on one is looked upon as a necessity, for which life, honor and human feeling are sacrificed, and men even commit suicide if they are unable to satisfy it. We see the same thing among those who are not rich, while the poor drown their unsatisfied need and their envy in drunkenness. But soon they will drink blood instead of wine, they are being led on to it. I ask you is such a man free?

...

[pg 359]

(i) Of Hell and Hell Fire, a Mystic Reflection

Fathers and teachers, I ponder, “What is hell?” I maintain that it is the suffering of being unable to love. Once in infinite existence, immeasurable in time and space, a spiritual creature was given on his coming to earth, the power of saying, “I am and I love.”

...

Part III

Book VII. Alyosha

Chapter I. The Breath Of Corruption

Chapter II. A Critical Moment

Chapter III. An Onion

Chapter IV. Cana Of Galilee

Book VIII. Mitya

Chapter I. Kuzma Samsonov

Chapter II. Lyagavy

Chapter III. Gold-Mines

Chapter IV. In The Dark

Chapter V. A Sudden Resolution

Chapter VI. “I Am Coming, Too!”

Chapter VII. The First And Rightful Lover

Chapter VIII. Delirium

Book IX. The Preliminary Investigation

Chapter I. The Beginning Of Perhotin's Official Career

Chapter II. The Alarm

Chapter III. The Sufferings Of A Soul, The First Ordeal

Chapter IV. The Second Ordeal

Chapter V. The Third Ordeal

Chapter VI. The Prosecutor Catches Mitya

Chapter VII. Mitya's Great Secret. Received With Hisses

Chapter VIII. The Evidence Of The Witnesses. The Babe

Chapter IX. They Carry Mitya Away

Part IV

Book X. The Boys

Chapter I. Kolya Krassotkin

Chapter II. Children

Chapter III. The Schoolboy

Chapter IV. The Lost Dog

Chapter V. By Ilusha's Bedside

Chapter VI. Precocity

Chapter VII. Ilusha

Book XI. Ivan

Chapter I. At Grushenka's

Chapter II. The Injured Foot

Chapter III. A Little Demon

Chapter IV. A Hymn And A Secret

Chapter V. Not You, Not You!

Chapter VI. The First Interview With Smerdyakov

Chapter VII. The Second Visit To Smerdyakov

Chapter VIII. The Third And Last Interview With Smerdyakov

Chapter IX. The Devil. Ivan's Nightmare

Chapter X. “It Was He Who Said That”

Book XII. A Judicial Error

Chapter I. The Fatal Day

Chapter II. Dangerous Witnesses

Chapter III. The Medical Experts And A Pound Of Nuts

Chapter IV. Fortune Smiles On Mitya

Chapter V. A Sudden Catastrophe

Chapter VI. The Prosecutor's Speech. Sketches Of Character

Chapter VII. An Historical Survey

Chapter VIII. A Treatise On Smerdyakov

Chapter IX. The Galloping Troika. The End Of The Prosecutor's Speech.

Chapter X. The Speech For The Defense. An Argument That Cuts Both Ways

Chapter XI. There Was No Money. There Was No Robbery

Chapter XII. And There Was No Murder Either

Chapter XIII. A Corrupter Of Thought

Chapter XIV. The Peasants Stand Firm

Epilogue

Chapter I. Plans For Mitya's Escape

Chapter II. For A Moment The Lie Becomes Truth

Chapter III. Ilusha's Funeral. The Speech At The Stone

References

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 AuthorvolumeDate ValuetitletypejournaltitleUrldoinoteyear
1880 TheBrothersKaramazovFyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881)The Brothers Karamazov1880