Anaphora Resolution Task

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An anaphora resolution task is an Entity Mention Coreference Resolution Task that is restricted to the mapping of an anaphor (such as an anaphoric pronoun) to its anaphor antecedent.




  • (Jurafsky & Martin, 2009) ⇒ Daniel Jurafsky, and James H. Martin. (2000). “Speech and Language Processing, 2nd edition." Pearson Education.
    • We are now ready to two referent resolution tasks: coreference resolution and pronominal anaphora resolution. Coreference resolution is the task of finding referring expression in a text that refer to the same entity, that is, finding expression that corefer. We call the set of coreferring expressions a coreference chain.
    • Coreference resolution requires finding all referring expression in a discourse and group them into coreference chains. By contrast, pronomial anaphora resolution is the task of finding the antecedent for a single pronoun.



  • (Haggerty, 2006) ⇒ James C. Haggerty. (2006). “Improving Pronoun Resolution." Honours Thesis, School of Information Technologies, The University of Sydney, Australia.





  • (Morton, 2000)
    • found that ~98.7% of Anaphor Antecedents were within two Sentences.



  • (Strube and Hahn, 1999) ⇒ Michael Strube, and Udo Hahn. (1999). “Functional Centering Grounding Referential Coherence in Information Structure.” In: Computational Linguistics.
    • In establishing proper referential relations, we found the functional information structure of the utterances to be much more relevant. By this we mean indicators of whether or not a discourse entity in the current utterance refers to another discourse entity already introduced by previous utterances in the discourse. Borrowing terminology from Prince (1981, 1992), an entity that does refer to another discourse entity already introduced is called discourse-old or hearer-old, while an entity that does not refer to another discourse entity is called discourse-new or hearer-new.


  • (Hirst, 1981) ⇒ Graeme Hirst. (1981). “Anaphora in Natural Language Understanding: A Survey.” Springer-Verlag. ISBN:0387108580


  • (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) ⇒ Michael A. K. Halliday, and Ruqaiya Hasan. (1976). “Cohesion in English."Longman. ISBN:0582550416
    • QUOTE: "Anaphora is cohesion (presupposition) which points back to some previous item. The "pointing back" (reference) is called an anaphor and the entity to which it refers is its antecedent. The process of determining the antecedent of an anaphor is called anaphora resolution."