Anaphora Resolution Task
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- AKA: Pronominal Anaphora Resolution Task, Pronominal Coreference Resolution, Anaphora Resolution, Anaphora Coreference Resolution Task, Anaphora Disambiguation Task.
- input: An Utterance Sequence.
- It can be solved by an Anaphora Resolution System that applies an (Anaphora Resolution algorithm).
- It ranges from being a Pronominal Anaphora Resolution Task, to being a Definite Noun Phrase Anaphora Resolution Task, to being a One-Anaphora Resolution Task.
- a Machine Learning Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- a Statistical Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- a Syntax-based Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- a Semantics-based Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- a Knowledge-Poor Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- a Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- Wada's English-to-Japanese Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task (Wada 1990);
- Chen's English-to-Chinese Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task (Chen 1992);
- Saggion-Carvallho's Portuguese-to-English Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task (Saggion & Carvalho 1994);
- KIT-FAST English-to-German Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task (Preub et al. 1994; Hauenschild et al. 1993);
- Nakaiwa's Japanese Zero Pronouns Resolution Task (Nakaiwa et al., 1991; Nakaiwa et al., 1994; Nakaiwa et al., 1995)
- Mitkov's English-to-Korean Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task (Mitkov et al. 1994);
- CAT2 Anaphora Resolution Task (Mitkov et al. 1995);
- Voita-Serdyukov-Sennrich-Titov Context-Aware Neural Machine Translation Anaphora Resolution Task (Voita et al., 2018),
- an Information Extraction Anaphora Resolution Task such as:
- STUDENT Anaphora Resolution Task (Bobrow 1964),
- SHRDLU Anaphora Resolution Task (Winograd 1972),
- Carter's Shallow Processing Anaphora Resolution Task (Carter 1986),
- Rich-LuperFoy's Distributed Pronominal Anaphora Resolution (Rich & LuperFoy 1988),
- Carbonell-Brown's Multi-Strategy Anaphora Resolution Task (Carbonell & Brown 1988),
- Perez Scalar Product Coordinating Anaphora Resolution Task (Rico Perez 1994),
- Nasukawa's Knowledge-Independent Anaphora Resolution Task,
- Mitkov's Uncertainty-Reasoning Anaphora Resolution Task (Mitkov 1995b),
- Mitkov's Two-Engine Anaphora Resolution Task (Mitkov 1997),
- Athira's Salience-Score-based Malayalam Pronominal Anaphora Resolution Task (Athira et al., 2014),
- Liang-Wu Pronominal Anaphora Resolution Task (Liang & Wu, 2004).
- See: Natural Language Processing Task, Natural Language Understanding Task, Entity Mention Coreference Resolution System, Coreference Chain.
- (Voita et al., 2018) ⇒ Elena Voita, Pavel Serdyukov, Rico Sennrich, and Ivan Titov. (2018). “Context-Aware Neural Machine Translation Learns Anaphora Resolution.” Proceedings of ACL 2018.
- (Jurafsky & Martin, 2009) ⇒ Daniel Jurafsky, and James H. Martin. (2000). “Speech and Language Processing, 2nd edition." Pearson Education.
- We are now ready to two referent resolution tasks: coreference resolution and pronominal anaphora resolution. Coreference resolution is the task of finding referring expression in a text that refer to the same entity, that is, finding expression that corefer. We call the set of coreferring expressions a coreference chain.
- Coreference resolution requires finding all referring expression in a discourse and group them into coreference chains. By contrast, pronomial anaphora resolution is the task of finding the antecedent for a single pronoun.
- (Bergsma and Lin, 2006)
- found that ~97% of Anaphor Antecedents were Intrasentential Anaphora Mentions.
- (Haggerty, 2006) ⇒ James C. Haggerty. (2006). “Improving Pronoun Resolution." Honours Thesis, School of Information Technologies, The University of Sydney, Australia.
- (Liang & Wu, 2004) ⇒ Tyne Liang, and Dian-Song Wu. (2004). “Automatic Pronominal Anaphora Resolution in English Texts..” In: International Journal of Computational Linguistics & Chinese Language Processing. Special Issue on Selected Papers from ROCLING XV 9.1 (2004)., 9(1).
- (Garrod, 2001) ⇒ S. Garrod (2001). "Anaphora Resolution" In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences Journal. DOI: 10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/01527-8
- QUOTE: Anaphora occurs when there is repeated reference to the same entities in a discourse. Anaphora resolution is the process of interpreting the link between the anaphor (i.e., the repeated reference) and its antecedent (i.e., the previous mention of the entity). The process is of interest because it frequently involves interpretation across a sentence boundary. Thus, despite playing a crucial role in discourse comprehension, it falls outside the scope of traditional psycholinguistic accounts of sentence processing. There are two main issues that have driven the psychological research on anaphora resolution. First, there is the issue of how the resolution process relates to more basic sentence comprehension processes, such as syntactic parsing and semantic interpretation. This issue has been addressed principally by investigating the time course of anaphora resolution as compared with other sentence interpretation processes. The second issue concerns the nature of the mental representation of the discourse context that is required to support anaphora resolution. The research indicates that the process depends on access to mental models of discourse containing discourse entities that reflect the people and other things up to that point.
- (Morton, 2000)
- found that ~98.7% of Anaphor Antecedents were within two Sentences.
- (Mitkov, 1999) ⇒ Ruslan Mitkov. (1999). “Anaphora Resolution: The State of the Art.” In: Technical report. University of Wolverhampton.
- QUOTE: Anaphora resolution is a complicated problem in Natural Language Processing and has attracted the attention of many researchers. The approaches developed - traditional (from purely syntactic ones to highly semantic and pragmatic ones), alternative (statistic, uncertainty-reasoning etc.) or knowledge-poor, offer only approximate solutions (...)
- (Strube and Hahn, 1999) ⇒ Michael Strube, and Udo Hahn. (1999). “Functional Centering Grounding Referential Coherence in Information Structure.” In: Computational Linguistics.
- In establishing proper referential relations, we found the functional information structure of the utterances to be much more relevant. By this we mean indicators of whether or not a discourse entity in the current utterance refers to another discourse entity already introduced by previous utterances in the discourse. Borrowing terminology from Prince (1981, 1992), an entity that does refer to another discourse entity already introduced is called discourse-old or hearer-old, while an entity that does not refer to another discourse entity is called discourse-new or hearer-new.
- (Hirst, 1981) ⇒ Graeme Hirst. (1981). “Anaphora in Natural Language Understanding: A Survey.” Springer-Verlag. ISBN:0387108580
- (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) ⇒ Michael A. K. Halliday, and Ruqaiya Hasan. (1976). “Cohesion in English."Longman. ISBN:0582550416
- QUOTE: "Anaphora is cohesion (presupposition) which points back to some previous item. The "pointing back" (reference) is called an anaphor and the entity to which it refers is its antecedent. The process of determining the antecedent of an anaphor is called anaphora resolution."