Chemical Element

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A Chemical Element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic numbers.



  1. IUPAC (ed.). “chemical element". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022.
  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory (2011). "Periodic Table of Elements: Oxygen". Los Alamos, New Mexico: Los Alamos National Security, LLC. Retrieved 7 May 2011.


  • (Wikipedia, 2009) ⇒
    • The nucleus of an atom is the very dense region, consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons), at the center of an atom. Almost all of the mass in an atom is made up from the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, with a very small contribution from the orbiting electrons.
    • The diameter of the nucleus is in the range of 1.6 fm (1.6 × 10−15 m) (for a proton in light hydrogen) to about 15 fm (for the heaviest atoms, such as uranium). These dimensions are much smaller than the size of the atom itself by a factor of about 23,000 (uranium) to about 145,000 (hydrogen).
    • The branch of physics concerned with studying and understanding the atomic nucleus, including its composition and the forces which bind it together, is called nuclear physics