# Normal Vector

A Normal Vector is a vector that is perpendicular to a given geometrical object.

**AKA:**Normal (Geometry).**Example(s):****See:**Phong Shading, Perpendicular, Tangent Line, Surface, Tangent Space, Abstract Line, Plane, Force, Orthogonality, Differentiable Manifold.

## References

### 2015

- (Wikipedia, 2015) ⇒ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_(geometry) Retrieved:2015-5-17.
- In geometry, a
**normal**is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object. For example, in the two-dimensional case, the normal line to a curve at a given point is the line perpendicular to the tangent line to the curve at the point.In the three-dimensional case a

**surface normal**, or simply normal, to a surface at a point*P*is a vector that is perpendicular to the tangent plane to that surface at*P*. The word "normal" is also used as an adjective: a line normal to a plane, the normal component of a force, the**normal vector**, etc. The concept of normality generalizes to orthogonality.The concept has been generalized to differentiable manifolds of arbitrary dimension embedded in a Euclidean space. The

**normal vector space**or normal space of a manifold at a point*P*is the set of the vectors which are orthogonal to the tangent space at*P*. In the case of differential curves, the curvature vector is a normal vector of special interest.The

**normal**is often used in computer graphics to determine a surface's orientation toward a light source for flat shading, or the orientation of each of the corners (vertices) to mimic a curved surface with Phong shading.

- In geometry, a